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lecture 03

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65 Lecture 03: Problems in brain
Midterm in Nov 1 5-7 pm only mc & focus on actual text in textbook
oNo dates (if there is date, it will help you along it will not affect
oNo question about tables
Problem in the vascular system (blood flow):
A)Blockage: the blockage prevents blood to go to the brain blood carry O & sucrose
O is really important person can only stay alive 3 min or less w/out O 
especially brain it is highly active in metabolically short time w/out O is
oE.g. heart attack if it too long to get it beating & supply blood 
most likely suffer some type of brain damage
1st type: Cerebral Vascular Accidents (CVA)
most commonly refer to as stroke term stroke is commonly used in
loose sort of way
Severe interruption to the blood supply of the brain this results in Ischemia
in general sense, it means problem in the blood supply (not enough blood/
O) to the brain
oSince O is the primary component in blood it also refer to as
disruption of O supply to the brain
This then produces dead/ dying tissue called Infarct look at what part of
brain is infarct
Summary: CVA Ischemia Infarct area of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe..)
2nd type: slower acting Encephalomalacia
Lack of blood supply but its very slow usually from some sort of long term
blockage of artery/ plague/ cholesterol
oSlow reduction in the blood supply brain tissues start becoming
When this occur generally see what we refer to as softening of the brain
tissue means there is some damage in tissue but the tissue as whole is
not dead maybe some swelling
Summary: Encephalomalacia softening of brain tissue
3rd type: Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Its common transient meaning its temporary it comes last for while &
then it goes away
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oIschemic lack of O/ blood flow
So it is sudden on lack of O/ blood flow then it goes away
It occurs commonly during a lot of stress / severe or migraine headaches
temporary vascular constriction last for 1h or 2h
oCommonly experience blurring of vision in some part of the visual field
What are Causes for A) type of problems?
1: Thrombosis define by the fact that it is locally formed it is blockage
that is formed locally (formed right there)
2: Embolism a blockage that breaks off from someplace else & block
somewhere else (e.g. lot of cholesterol/plague build up in their artery it
could easily break off & can travel around the body until it lodges
3: Arteriosclerosis slow phenomena & usually associated w/
Encephalomalacia general clogging of artery (refer to as hardening of
B)Blood Vessels Burst
if it occurs in the brain refer to as Cerebral Haemorrhage massive
bleeding into the brain tissue itself Can be life threatening
oit is most often associated w/ high blood pressure
it most likely kill the tissue (where it is bleeding)
C)Subdural Hematoma
Bleeding into the space b/w the skull & the brain itself is not bleeding
inside the brain itself but bleeding outside of the brain in the area of the
meninges (it bleeds into the sub-arachnoid space)
oIt doesnt kill the brain tissue itself directly it just put pressure on the
If it caught on time the pressure can be relieved & no permanent brain
damage has to occur
If left alone pressure could increase & brain could not get enough blood -->
cause brain damage
Collection/ mass of enlarged abnormal blood vessels this usually congenital
(born w/ them) & are vessels are inherently weak
it could send blood in the wrong direction most of the time it is fine
owhen person in high blood pressure or stress vessels could burst &
becomes a problem
if caught on time could surgically fix the problem
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