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PSYB65 – Lecture 03: Problems in brain
Midterm in Nov 1 – 5-7 pm  only mc & focus on actual text in textbook
oNo dates (if there is date, it will help you along  it will not affect
answer)
oNo question about tables
Problem in the vascular system (blood flow):
A)Blockage: the blockage prevents blood to go to the brain blood carry O & sucrose 
O is really important  person can only stay alive 3 min or less w/out O 
especially brain – it is highly active in metabolically  short time w/out O is
devastating
oE.g. heart attack  if it too long to get it beating & supply blood 
most likely suffer some type of brain damage
1st type: Cerebral Vascular Accidents (CVA)
 most commonly refer to as stroke  term stroke is commonly used in
β€œloose” sort of way
Severe interruption to the blood supply of the brain  this results in Ischemia
– in general sense, it means problem in the blood supply (not enough blood/
O) to the brain 
oSince O is the primary component in blood  it also refer to as
disruption of O supply to the brain 
This then produces dead/ dying tissue  called Infarct  look at what part of
brain is infarct
Summary: CVA  Ischemia  Infarct  area of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe..)
2nd type: slower acting  Encephalomalacia
Lack of blood supply but it’s very slow  usually from some sort of long term
blockage of artery/ plague/ cholesterol
oSlow reduction in the blood supply  brain tissues start becoming
damaged
When this occur  generally see what we refer to as β€œsoftening of the brain
tissue”  means there is some damage in tissue but the tissue as whole is
not dead  maybe some swelling
Summary: Encephalomalacia softening of brain tissue
3rd type: Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Its common  transient – meaning its temporary  it comes last for while &
then it goes away
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oIschemic – lack of O/ blood flow 
So it is sudden on lack of O/ blood flow  then it goes away
It occurs commonly during a lot of stress / severe or migraine headaches
temporary vascular constriction  last for 1h or 2h
oCommonly experience blurring of vision in some part of the visual field
What are Causes for A) type of problems?
1: Thrombosis – define by the fact that it is β€œlocally formed”  it is blockage
that is formed locally (formed right there)
2: Embolism – a blockage that breaks off from someplace else & block
somewhere else (e.g. lot of cholesterol/plague build up in their artery  it
could easily break off & can travel around the body until it lodges
somewhere)
3: Arteriosclerosis  slow phenomena & usually associated w/
Encephalomalacia  general clogging of artery (refer to as hardening of
arteries)
B)Blood Vessels Burst
if it occurs in the brain –refer to as Cerebral Haemorrhage  massive
bleeding into the brain tissue itself  Can be life threatening
oit is most often associated w/ high blood pressure
it most likely kill the tissue (where it is bleeding)
C)Subdural Hematoma
Bleeding into the space b/w the skull & the brain itself  is not bleeding
inside the brain itself but bleeding outside of the brain – in the area of the
meninges (it bleeds into the sub-arachnoid space)
oIt doesn’t kill the brain tissue itself directly  it just put pressure on the
brain
If it caught on time  the pressure can be relieved & no permanent brain
damage has to occur
If left alone pressure could increase & brain could not get enough blood -->
cause brain damage
D)Angioma
Collection/ mass of enlarged abnormal blood vessels this usually congenital
(born w/ them) & are vessels are inherently weak
it could send blood in the wrong direction  most of the time it is fine
owhen person in high blood pressure or stress  vessels could burst &
becomes a problem
if caught on time  could surgically fix the problem
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Document Summary

Problem in the vascular system (blood flow): blockage: the blockage prevents blood to go to the brain blood carry o & sucrose. o is really important especially brain it is highly active in metabolically short time w/out o is devastating. person can only stay alive 3 min or less w/out o : e. g. heart attack if it too long to get it beating & supply blood most likely suffer some type of brain damage. 1 st type: cerebral vascular accidents (cva) most com monly refer to as stroke term stroke is com monly used in. severe interruption to the blood supply of the brain this results in ischemia. In general sense, it means problem in the blood supply (not enough blood/ O ) to the brain: since o is the primary component in blood. it also refer to as disruption of o supply to the brain.

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