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PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Chopsticks, Caudate Nucleus, Cerebral Achromatopsia

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65: Lec 5
We talked about how NS put together and what can go wrong w/ it
Sensory and motor systems today
Sensory system is in parietal cortex and motor fxn in frontal cortex, divided by central sulcus and on
either side of the sulcus are the gyri
Pre-central gyrus = primary motor output
Post-central gyrus = primary sensory input from body other than special senses
What happens when those areas get damaged (stroke, tumor etc;)
Visual system = specialized = occipital cortex at back of head
Temporal Lobe & Auditory cortex = primarily hearing but also speech (understanding language, decoding
and re-encoding and making language)
Anatomical organization:
o Down the middle of the retinas (centre of nose), they are anatomically divided
creates visual field = what you see; technically it’s divided into 2 visual half fields = right
visual half field and left visual half field shortened to right visual field and left v.f.
o If you look straight ahead at a point, everything to the right is the right visual field;
everything to the left of point = left visual field
o Visual field is divided in 2 halves b/c retinas are divided in 2 halves
o Retinal region closest to nose = nasal portion/half of retina
o Other half of retina closest to outside of head = temporal portion/half of retina
o Nerves are divided in exact middle of eye
Nerves from temporal portion; all nerves from 2 eyes come together as a single
nerve point; 2 separate nerves leaving your eyes = optic nerves = come together
after growing back and meet at single point = optic chiasm

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To get to the 2 separate parts of the brain, the optic chiasm separates apart and
goes into brain; part where they are separating and going to back = optic tract
Group of axons that come together: if outside the CNS = nerve; inside
CNS = tract
Nerves from temporal (outside) portion of each retina remain on same side and
go up to cortex
Nerves from nasal portion of each retina cross over (goes to other side of the
o Pupil = small opening for light to get into (review video: 15 min)
Ex) Hold hand out on right side (while you look straight on), info (the light trying
to get into your eye) can only go through the little hole in your pupil and
therefore it’s going to hit the nasal portion of right eye and temporal portion of
left eye (b/c light doesn’t bend)
Ex) If something is in left visual field (while you look straight on), it can only hit
the following portions of each eye: nasal portion of left eye and temporal
portion of right eye
Remember, temporal portions stay on same side whereas the nasal portions
cross over;
So, if something in left visual field, info that hits nasal portion of left eye
crosses over (onto right side) whereas the info that hits temporal
portion of right eye keeps going along the same side so if info from
left visual field, the right cortex receives that info
Opposite true: everything in your right visual field ends up in left cortex
o Some sort of damage to the visual system (tumor, MS etc;)
Look at patient’s visual field: close one eye at a time and hold hand up in
different regions of a circle 2 determine where ppl can see with each eye
Normal: don’t see a full circle b/c eyes aren’t perfect irregular inner circle;
right eye can see a bit more on the right than on the left
2) lost all nerves in that area: destroy anything that the right eye can see (blind
that’s where they should be able to see but cannot that’s there visual field,
NOT RETINA!); left eye open and looking at its visual field, everything fine
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