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CA (538,541)
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Psychology (7,991)
PSYB65H3 (525)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 7: Brain and Behavior
Introduction
In this course it is important to know about the drugs that people use for themselves,
like self induced drugs. Its not prescribed medication but taking drugs for fun.
Addiction is a huge problem in North America, and so it is very important to know
about drugs that are being taken without prescription and just for fun. You have to
be aware of the drugs and responsible for all sorts of crimes.
How drugs work
The Global overview of how drugs are classified.
oPrescription drugs: these are the drugs that the doctor prescribes for you.
oOver the counter drugs: those are things that you can get over the counter at
the drug store and you dont have to have a prescription for them.
oSocial Drugs: Things like nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. Things that you dont
go to a drug store to get. They are also not prescribed.
oThe drugs that are not produced commercially. And if they are produced
commercially, they are not produced for the psychoactive effect.
They are not produced commercially such as marijuana, you can go
and say that you want a package of stuff. There can be produced
commercially but not used for psychoactive effect such as airplane
glue. It is produced commercially, but you are not supposed to put it in
a bag and snort it to get high.
Tolerance
oMost of the drugs when taken repeatedly, you get a decreasing behavioral
effect.
oIf you take a look at the synapses. In your normal synapse, you have normal
sort of activity. Let us say that you have four receptors, whenever you take a
drug, such as a stimulant. If you take a stimulant, it will have excess amount
of transmitters to be released through varies mechanisms such as
manufacturing, storage, release, and reuptake. However what you are going
to have more transmitters substances hitting the receptors, and so it
stimulates the post synaptic neuron. What will happen is when you release
more and more of the transmitters you will have a hyper stimulus of the post
synapses which is bombarding by the action of the stimulant. Some actions
can be done directly, and there are some stimulants that show action after a
series of events. So you are getting these receptors being bombarded with
stimulants, and you get a plastic response of the postsynaptic cells for them to
either reduce the number or the sensitivity of the postsynaptic receptors. The
more postsynaptic receptors being bombarded, the more the post synaptic
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receptors/membrane respond by either reducing the number or the sensitivity
of the post synaptic receptors.
oNow we are going to talk about stimulants. If you stop bombarding the post
synaptic receptors, it will start reducing the number of receptors that it has
to compensate for this over activation. Therefore you will now get to the point
where this post synaptic neuron, will not fire as often cuz it is sort of self
regulated, it has its own feedback loop. It will self regulate, it will tone itself
down reducing the number of receptors and reduce its sensitive as well. So if
you take the same amount of drug over time, the receptors in your brain will
start damping themselves down, that you no longer get a strong effect
behaviorally, because you have reduce the number and the sensitivity of the
receptors. That leads to the concept of tolerance. Any time you are dealing
with drugs, in the brain, it is essentially never permanent.
oThe same thing will happen with a depressant, if you have your depressant,
however whatever the depressant you are taking will be slowing down the
functional activity. It is decreasing the activation of the postsynaptic cell. The
postsynaptic cell through its own feedback mechanism, realizing that it is it is
not getting the normal level of activity it should, it will start to increase the
number or the sensitivity of the postsynaptic receptor. So first the depressant
that first depressed the brain, the activation will come back to normal due to
the increase in the number and sensitivity of the neuron. The brain response
to certain drugs more rapidly than others.
Withdrawal
oMost drugs, once you have been on them for a while, it is very difficult to get
off of them because you get withdrawal effects. Alcoholics for example, if they
withdraw from alcohol, (first of all you never want to alcoholic withdraw from
alcohol to quickly). You never get an addict and cut them off their drug cold
turkey, especially one is who is on depressants, and because they will go
through withdrawal effects and they can be quite severe.
o(Stimulant)If you take the stimulant away, they neuron will be back to
normal activity, which is much slower than before. And now, under normal
levels of activity, the postsynaptic cell dont have very many cells. Under
normal activity the synapses is going to be under stimulated. And it will take
it a while for it to go back to having a normal amount of receptors. So normal
levels of stimulation, are going to leave the postsynaptic cell to be under
stimulated. Then what happens is that, the person comes off of it, and
instead of being hyper, they will be very depressed because there is very little
activation due to the compensation that is being going on. The effect of
withdrawal is the exact opposite of the effect of the drug. The affects of
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Description
Lecture 7: Brain and Behavior Introduction In this course it is important to know about the drugs that people use for themselves, like self induced drugs. Its not prescribed medication but taking drugs for fun. Addiction is a huge problem in North America, and so it is very important to know about drugs that are being taken without prescription and just for fun. You have to be aware of the drugs and responsible for all sorts of crimes. How drugs work The Global overview of how drugs are classified. o Prescription drugs: these are the drugs that the doctor prescribes for you. o Over the counter drugs: those are things that you can get over the counter at the drug store and you dont have to have a prescription for them. o Social Drugs: Things like nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. Things that you dont go to a drug store to get. They are also not prescribed. o The drugs that are not produced commercially. And if they are produced commercially, they are not produced for the psychoactive effect. They are not produced commercially such as marijuana, you can go and say that you want a package of stuff. There can be produced commercially but not used for psychoactive effect such as airplane glue. It is produced commercially, but you are not supposed to put it in a bag and snort it to get high. Tolerance o Most of the drugs when taken repeatedly, you get a decreasing behavioral effect. o If you take a look at the synapses. In your normal synapse, you have normal sort of activity. Let us say that you have four receptors, whenever you take a drug, such as a stimulant. If you take a stimulant, it will have excess amount of transmitters to be released through varies mechanisms such as manufacturing, storage, release, and reuptake. However what you are going to have more transmitters substances hitting the receptors, and so it stimulates the post synaptic neuron. What will happen is when you release more and more of the transmitters you will have a hyper stimulus of the post synapses which is bombarding by the action of the stimulant. Some actions can be done directly, and there are some stimulants that show action after a series of events. So you are getting these receptors being bombarded with stimulants, and you get a plastic response of the postsynaptic cells for them to either reduce the number or the sensitivity of the postsynaptic receptors. The more postsynaptic receptors being bombarded, the more the post synaptic www.notesolution.com
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