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Psychology (8,026)
PSYB65H3 (525)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture

Lecture2 note

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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PSYB65 Lec2
- Last week we had an overview of the brain, its function, design, how it got there in our evolutionary
history and individual development
- as we move forwad in the brain, it gets more complex (cortex, newest evolutionary and deals with
more complex things)
- the brain adds on more and more complex processes
- but we still have the primative aspects of the brain (eat, sex, territory protection but we
make them more complicated, ex territory protection is not urinating on a fire hydrant,
but
having borders)
- this week we will turn to the cerebal cortex in greater detail
- the cerebal cortex at each of the lobes
- not only how its functionaly divided, but also the coverings and the vascular supplies
- throughout the course we will mainly focus on the cortex since it is where much of the complex activity
takes place, and since it takes up most of the space of the brain
The Cerebal Cortex and its Basic Makeup
- the fist thing you see is that its not smooth (compare to other species like rats)
- we keep trying to add on cells (evolutionary pressure to become smarter)
- as the brain continues to expand, it goes to the back of the skull and it starts to crincle up
- we must we aware that we end up with moutains and valleys and it gives a clear location
(boundaries) of which area is responsible as what
- the mountains refer to as Gyrus or Gyri for plural
- when you look at the top of the brain, the two sides arent directly connected (or at least they dont
look like it from the top)
- looks like there is a grove, dividing the brain into the left and right half (right and left
hemispheres)
- the two are connected by a fiber pathway
- the right hemisphere controls the lefthand side of your body and gets information from the
lefthand side of the body and vice versa
- the two hemispheres are connected, just not apparent from the top view; they are connected by a very
broad fiber pathway called the Corpus Callosun; look at the photo where the top cortex has been taken off
can see that the fiber connects the right hemisphere with the left; each side is connected to its similar
region on the other side (talking between the two hemispheres)
- there are 3 main fissures:
1. Longitudinal Fissure
- right down the centre, separating the right and the left hemisphere (at the bottom of it is
the Corpus Callosun)
- just a deep sulcus
2. Central Fissure/Central Sulcus
- on each hemisphere, separates the anterior and posterior section of the brain
- separates the frontal and the pridal lobes
3. Lateral Fissure/Sylvian Fissure
- it separates out a lobe as well (temporal lobe) = top and bottom
- the Cerebal Cortex is subdivided not only into a left and right, but also separated into 4 lobes
- different parts of it has different functions
1. Frontal Lobe
- in the front; ends at the central sulcus
2. Parietal Lobe
- just behind the central sulcus
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3. Occipital Lobe
- at the very back of the head
- involved in vision
4. Temporal Lobe
- below the Sylvian Fissure
- deals with speech and hearing
- each of these lobes as a primary function; they take care of some major behaviour component
- in addition each lobe has a primary function, primary cortex and an associational cortex within
each lobe
- the primary cortex is the primary receptive area (reciveing input for the lobe, from the
outside world) it is is a sensoty input or muscle output (motor control); the primary cortex
is that part of that lobe that gets that information directly from whatever the sense it is
responsible for
- the associational cortex usually surrounds and is beside the primary cortex, it is
like the computing power of the brain it processes more complex phenominon;
takes simple information and builds on it; higher order; and also newest in terms
of evolution, and in more evoloved animasl there is a greater percentage of
associational cortex relative to primary cortex; because it gives you motr
computing power
- Brodman mapped the human brain with numbers
- mapped the brain according to its functions
- the numbers are still used today heavily
- the primary cortex of each lobe also has a number, and its important to know those
Frontal Lobe: 4 and 6 are the primary areas in the frontal cortex
Parietal Lobe: 1,2,and 3
Occipital Lobe: 17; therefore, area 17 is the primary receptive area for vision from the eye
and is located in the occipital cortex
Temporal Lobe: 41; hearing, the information from the ear enters here
- let us now look at how each of these lobes are like (boundaries, function)
- look at the different lobes in the cortex
1. Frontal Lobe:
- starts from the most anterier part of the brain, and continues backward until it hits the
central sulcus (the groove that divides the brain into front and back)
- its primary function is that it controls motor movement (when you want to move your arm, it
starts from here)
- as you move more anterier, it is also involved in planning (think about things in the
future; going to university)
- it also inhibiting inappropriate behaviour (it is a type of planning...you dont say exactly
what you are saying because you can see the concequences)
- the primary area is called the Motor Strip; the Precentral Gyrus (called this because it is
the gyrus=mountain sulcus=valley; therefore, it is the mountain right infront of the
central valley) -> primary strip/cortex, and since it deals with motor muscle control, it is
referred to as Primary Motor Strip; it corresponds to Brodman's area 4 and 6
- this is where the cells are that control the muscles in your body; when you stilmulate the
nurons in this portion in the brain during a surgery, it will cause a hand/leg to move (if
you stimulate the left precentral gyrus it will cause the right side of the body to move)
- the way the motor strip is organized it not random...it is mapped and if we wanted your
right hand to move, we know exactly where to stimulate
- if you cut into the precentral gyrus, when you stimulate it at the top it will cause
the tiwitching of the foot
- the pattern is the feet, hands, face, then throat
- it looks like there is a little person in the brain; this person is referred to
as the Humunculus; "tiny person"
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB65 Lec2 - Last week we had an overview of the brain, its function, design, how it got there in our evolutionary history and individual development - as we move forwad in the brain, it gets more complex (cortex, newest evolutionary and deals with more complex things) - the brain adds on more and more complex processes - but we still have the primative aspects of the brain (eat, sex, territory protection but we make them more complicated, ex territory protection is not urinating on a fire hydrant, but having borders) - this week we will turn to the cerebal cortex in greater detail - the cerebal cortex at each of the lobes - not only how its functionaly divided, but also the coverings and the vascular supplies - throughout the course we will mainly focus on the cortex since it is where much of the complex activity takes place, and since it takes up most of the space of the brain The Cerebal Cortex and its Basic Makeup - the fist thing you see is that its not smooth (compare to other species like rats) - we keep trying to add on cells (evolutionary pressure to become smarter) - as the brain continues to expand, it goes to the back of the skull and it starts to crincle up - we must we aware that we end up with moutains and valleys and it gives a clear location (boundaries) of which area is responsible as what - the mountains refer to as Gyrus or Gyri for plural - when you look at the top of the brain, the two sides arent directly connected (or at least they dont look like it from the top) - looks like there is a grove, dividing the brain into the left and right half (right and left hemispheres) - the two are connected by a fiber pathway - the right hemisphere controls the lefthand side of your body and gets information from the lefthand side of the body and vice versa - the two hemispheres are connected, just not apparent from the top view; they are connected by a very broad fiber pathway called the Corpus Callosun; look at the photo where the top cortex has been taken off can see that the fiber connects the right hemisphere with the left; each side is connected to its similar region on the other side (talking between the two hemispheres) - there are 3 main fissures: 1. Longitudinal Fissure - right down the centre, separating the right and the left hemisphere (at the bottom of it is the Corpus Callosun) - just a deep sulcus 2. Central FissureCentral Sulcus - on each hemisphere, separates the anterior and posterior section of the brain - separates the frontal and the pridal lobes 3. Lateral FissureSylvian Fissure - it separates out a lobe as well (temporal lobe) = top and bottom - the Cerebal Cortex is subdivided not only into a left and right, but also separated into 4 lobes - different parts of it has different functions 1. Frontal Lobe - in the front; ends at the central sulcus 2. Parietal Lobe - just behind the central sulcus www.notesolution.com
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