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Lecture 4

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Acetyl-Coa, Dopamine Receptor, Axon Terminal

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65- Lecture 4
In the membrane of the neuron, there are pores referred to as ion channels; when the neuron is
stimulated, these ion channels open up and allow sodium (positively charged) inside of the cell;
normally the electrical charge inside of the neuron, is sitting at a negative charge, but as more
and more sodium comes, then it becomes more and more positive; charge goes up and down,
but when too much sodium comes in, you reach a threshold which opens up all the pores in the
immediate vicinity and becomes extremely positive (causes a very large spike); referred to as an
action potential; if it is positive inside of the cell, then more pores open up inside of the cell
allowing more to come inside; when action potential gets to the end of the axon, then you come
to the contact point between two cells which is referred to as a synapse; inside of the axon
terminal are synaptic vesicles which have a chemical in them that transmit information
(transmitter substances); space between axon and dendrite is referred to as the synaptic cleft;
membrane of the dendrite have ion channels as well, and they are associated with its receptors
Step number one, there has to be a system for synthesis; step number two, transmitters have to
be stored inside of the synaptic vesicles; there are chemicals that keep them from being
packaged; whenever there is an action potential, the transmitter substance has to be released;
there are drugs that can interfere (either facilitate or prevent release) with the system at this
point; once its released, it has to interact with the receptor; chemicals developed that also
increase or decrease activation with the receptors; there are two ways to inactivate the
substances which are to reuptake or degradation
Synthesis- to increase functional activity, you increase synthesis; to decrease functional activity,
you decrease synthesis
Packaging- professor does not know any way of increasing packaging; to decrease functional
activity, you decrease packaging
Release- to increase functional activity, you increase the amount of it being released; to
decrease functional activity, you want to decrease release
Receptor activation- to increase functional activity, you want to administer mimickers which
look almost identical to transmitter substances that it can fit into the receptor holes and
activates the ion channels; to decrease the functional activity is to use a blocker which is a
chemical that looks identical to the transmitter substance that it can sit on the receptor but not
quite enough like it to actually activate the receptor
Inactivation- to increase functional activity, you want to reduce inactivation; to decrease
functional activity, you want to increase inactivation
I) Monoamines (or referred to also as the biogenic amines)
A. Catecholamines
1. Dopamine (DA)
2. Norepinephrine (NE)
Synthesis: DOPA-> DA-> NE
B. Serotonin (5HT)
Synthesis: 5OHT-> 5HT
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