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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Neuropsychology of brain damage and language: The aphasias

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 10 Chapter 7 and 10 and audio clip (Memory and Spatial Ability)
Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes
Frontal lobe
Posterior portion of it contains the primary motor cortex that sends information out
And the very frontal portion is the associational cortex that is involved in higher
order processes such as planning, socially appropriate behaviour and even with
Alzheimers starts with hippocampus and then damage to frontal lobe
Frontal lobe syndrome: among young adults, when getting into accidents with cars,
motorcycles, skiing etc. or with tumours in frontal lobe
Frontal lobotomies and frontal lobe damage
Historically:
oPre-frontal area (anterior of the frontal lobe)
oGall phrenology: a skull with a little portion here for revenge, emotion,
anger, domestic love and he had drawn on the skull, different areas that were
supposed to represent separate functions but it was based on silliness; based
on peoples attributes
oHe thought the anterior portion of the frontal lobe was responsible for
intelligent thought by looking at stuff with people and primates
oConcept of phrenology would say with bigger foreheads, more intelligent = a
reference to it in Sherlock Holmes story Gee I would think you would have a
bigger forehead
oSo a scientist came along, Jacobsen, and decided to test this in monkeys
oTook a group of monkeys and trained and tested them in their higher order
functioning then he went in and did frontal lobotomies = prefrontal area
oFound several changes (studies became historically important); loss of
delayed response capabilities meaning that they could not perform if there
was a delay in time between knowing the solution to a problem and actually
being able to perform the solution
oHe showed initially, the WGTA (Wisconsin general testing apparatus: like a
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Skinners box for birds), it has a table and a monkey on one side and a human
experimenter on the other side separated by a Plexiglas screen human will
put treat under a cup in front of the monkey and then pull an opaque screen
over the Plexiglas to create a delay until they reveal the cups to the monkey
again; then monkeys can choose but they would not be able to pick it out!
Monkeys with lobotomies who undergo the same task without delay can
perform at this task
oAnother example: place a banana just out of reach of the monkey in the cage
with a lobotomy; generally monkeys would use the rake in the cage, placed
near where the monkey is formulating his plan and he would be able to get
the banana; however if the rake was placed on an opposite end of the cage,
the monkey would discover it and go towards it but by the time he reaches the
place, he is disoriented and doesnt remember what he was doing
oProblem in immediate loss of memory, short term memory
oBut he found that if he left them in the DARK or given a sedative like a
barbiturate during this delayed process, the animal COULD solve the
problem!; not a problem in the memory, but something about being more
distractible; not as likely to be uptight, anxious in the dark let him perform
the task; more distractibility and emotionality than memory itself
oAlso found that the animals had problem in alternation; meaning if you were
doing an exercise where a raisin is placed under a red cup and the monkey is
asked to find it among the red and a blue cup, after figuring out it was in the
red cup, they will let the monkey choose the red cup correctly for 10 trails,
before switching it to be under the blue cup
oNow, the normal monkey finds on the 11th time that the raisin isnt under the
red cup so on the trail after that (or maybe a few after) a normal monkey will
alternate and choose the blue cup and gets it correctly; another 10 correct
runs under the blue cup and the experimenter will alternate to the red cup
oThe monkeys are able to alternate after realizing that it is no longer under
the cup they have been playing with but in monkeys that have undergone
frontal lobe lobotomies, they have a very hard time alternating
oOne specific female monkey: before the lobotomy when she was being tested
and trained, she would get frustrated at doing the tests when she wasnt
doing well; it got to the point that even before doing the tests, as she was
being taken out of the cage to perform tests, she would get incredibly fussy
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and throw temper tantrums as a result of not wanting to go; the scientist
then was not sure that she would perform any differently after the lobotomy
and thought he probably wouldnt be able to test her due to her tantrums but
found that after the lobotomy, she was TOTALLY calm and co-operative when
taking her to do the tests
oNeurosurgeon Dr. Antonio Egas Moniz found this so interesting and wanted
to know the implications of this in humans in patients that were psychotic
and schizophrenic etc. went back to the psych hospital and began
performing lobectomies on people that were severely affected by a range of
psychoses (far gone and so extreme that they
oUsed something called a leukotome which looks something like a letter
opener and he went in and cut through the anterior portion of the frontal lobe
oLater he used a needle that he inserted through the optic nerve to remove it
so they wouldnt have to open a patients skull for each surgery
oMoniz reported on his initial 20 patients; of them:
They all lived
7 of them had recovered
7 of them had improved
Didnt really mention the other 6
oContinued to perform these till 1994 until he was shot by one of his frontal
lobotomy patients and it severed his spinal cord rendered paraplegic by a
bullet would from his own patient
oHowever, it didnt end there: another two neuroscientists Freeman and Watts
took the procedure to North America where they performed surgeries on 3500
patients
oIn total, in the US there were 40,000 people who got frontal lobotomies alone
so it was a big hit
oProcedure: making massive cuts through the brain, leaving scar tissue and
massive scar tissue could lead to seizures and epilepsy
oWhat happened to these people?:
18% developed epilepsy within a 10 year period
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Description
Lecture 10 Chapter 7 and 10 and audio clip (Memory and Spatial Ability) Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes Frontal lobe Posterior portion of it contains the primary motor cortex that sends information out And the very frontal portion is the associational cortex that is involved in higher order processes such as planning, socially appropriate behaviour and even with Alzheimers starts with hippocampus and then damage to frontal lobe Frontal lobe syndrome: among young adults, when getting into accidents with cars, motorcycles, skiing etc. or with tumours in frontal lobe Frontal lobotomies and frontal lobe damage Historically: o Pre-frontal area (anterior of the frontal lobe) o Gall phrenology: a skull with a little portion here for revenge, emotion, anger, domestic love and he had drawn on the skull, different areas that were supposed to represent separate functions but it was based on silliness; based on peoples attributes o He thought the anterior portion of the frontal lobe was responsible for intelligent thought by looking at stuff with people and primates o Concept of phrenology would say with bigger foreheads, more intelligent = a reference to it in Sherlock Holmes story Gee I would think you would have a bigger forehead o So a scientist came along, Jacobsen, and decided to test this in monkeys o Took a group of monkeys and trained and tested them in their higher order functioning then he went in and did frontal lobotomies = prefrontal area o Found several changes (studies became historically important); loss of delayed response capabilities meaning that they could not perform if there was a delay in time between knowing the solution to a problem and actually being able to perform the solution o He showed initially, the WGTA (Wisconsin general testing apparatus: like a www.notesolution.com
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