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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Psychopharmacology of drug action, depressants, opiates, hallucinogens

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 8 Chapter 11 and 16 (Attention and Consciousness and Recovery and Function)
Psychopharmacology of drug action, depressants, opiates, and hallucinogens
Alcoholics take up most of the psych ward in hospitals
Depressants: referred to as sedative hypnotics
Valium and barbiturates
Causes cortex to go into more relaxed states
3 major categories:
1.Barbiturates: working through GABA
GABA is the primary inhibitory amino acid transmitter
they bind to GABA receptors and lower [transmission]
most depressants are synergistic of each other (work in very similar
mechanisms, adding to each other or cancelling withdrawal effects of each
other)
never take someone right off of depressant because brain can go into a hyper-
excitable state and can be fatal
used and prescribed normally for sleep induction typically theyre used in
elderly individuals because as you go through life span maturation circadian
rhythms are troubled and they have trouble sleeping through the night and
its to help them to sleep
while they do induce sleep, reduce the time in REM sleep behavioural
consequences of that
WITHDRAWAL?: always a chance of death by seizure if they have been on
high dose of it for a while
Alcohol will stop the withdrawal symptoms of barbiturates!!
2.Non-barbiturates
3.Alcohol
www.notesolution.com
A CNS depressant
Made by yeast, yeast digests sugar and excrete alcohol
Causes more problems than any other drug in society (as a scientist he has to
be objective and this is a fact!)
Largest number of admissions to mental hospitals or psych wards in the
hospital 20-40%
Also accounts for 55% of all arrests at least one of the parties
50-75% of all homicides; 50% of all driver deaths; 20-30% of all suicides the
person had been drinking
There is no other drug that is remotely close to being as dangerous
US passed the law, people were not allowed to manufacture their own alcohol
and no drinking = prohibition 1920-1933
oInitially everything looked great, decreased arrests etc.
oBut everything had gone RIGHT back up to where they were after
sometime because people were drinking again
oSmart humans wanting alcohol, will find a way to get it! Speakeasies
oALSO now, because these things were being made illegally, nothing
was going passed the government and being inspected = product that
is now being expected and not pure = NEWER problems!
oAlcohol = ethyl alcohol and if you try to short cut things you can wind
up with methyl alcohol methyl alcohol causes blindness -> we as
psychologists can learn from this that deaths by drug is because of
impure/mixed drugs
Alcohol is a really fascinating drug absorbed exactly through the stomach
wall! (usually have to be broken down before being able to go through the
stomach wall) one of the fastest forms of energy
Tremendous 200cal/ounce of alcohol FATTENING but gives you energy very
fast
Its metabolic pathway, SO SHORT energy from alcohol cannot be stored as
fat (then how do they get fat? Cuz the energy from alcohol is readily available,
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 8 Chapter 11 and 16 (Attention and Consciousness and Recovery and Function) Psychopharmacology of drug action, depressants, opiates, and hallucinogens Alcoholics take up most of the psych ward in hospitals Depressants: referred to as sedative hypnotics Valium and barbiturates Causes cortex to go into more relaxed states 3 major categories: 1. Barbiturates: working through GABA GABA is the primary inhibitory amino acid transmitter they bind to GABA receptors and lower [transmission] most depressants are synergistic of each other (work in very similar mechanisms, adding to each other or cancelling withdrawal effects of each other) never take someone right off of depressant because brain can go into a hyper- excitable state and can be fatal used and prescribed normally for sleep induction typically theyre used in elderly individuals because as you go through life span maturation circadian rhythms are troubled and they have trouble sleeping through the night and its to help them to sleep while they do induce sleep, reduce the time in REM sleep behavioural consequences of that WITHDRAWAL?: always a chance of death by seizure if they have been on high dose of it for a while Alcohol will stop the withdrawal symptoms of barbiturates!! 2. Non-barbiturates 3. Alcohol www.notesolution.com
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