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PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Middle Cerebral Artery, Arachnoid Mater, Visual Cortex

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65- Lecture
Corpus collosum is the pathway that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and allowing
them to communicate with each other
Central sulcus is a very prominent groove
Sylvian or lateral fissure is the large fissure on the side
Each lobe has some major function; also each lobe has two different kinds of cortex/tissue;
primary cortex and associational cortex; primary cortex is the area of the cortex that deals with
the primary thing that lobe does; primary cortex is where the information comes to directly and
is relatively small; primary is surrounded by tissue that processes it, which is referred to as the
associational cortex; performs the higher order functions; associational cortex is newer in terms
of evolution, and the more highly evolved and intelligent animals have more associational
Brodmann mapped the cerebral cortex of the human, and put numbers on the areas;
Frontal lobe begins at the very anterior portion of the brain and continues backward until it hits
and ends at the central sulcus; mostly involved in motor movement functions; output; also
involves planning, knowing what’s appropriate, and how to get where you want to go in
humans; precentral gyrus is the primary motor strip and everything else is associational (areas 4
and 6); information is sent out through the primary motor strip after the consulting is done by
the associational cortex; primary motor strip has a homunculus (little man)
Parietal lobe starts just posterior to the central sulcus and moves backward; responsible for
sensations from the body (somatosensory input), not the specialized senses such as the eyes or
the ears; primary cortex of the parietal lobe is the postcentral gyrus and all other area is
associational (areas 3,1,2); both the motor primary cortex and the sensory primary cortex have
a homunculus;
Homunculus- neurons for toes and feet are at the top of the brain, then hands, moving down to
the body, then face on the sides of the brain
Paralysis refers to the inability to move not sense
Occipital lobe is at the posterior portion of the brain, just above the cerebellum; major function
is vision and it receives information from the eyes; primary visual cortex is area 17;
Temporal cortex is the in the ventral portion of the brain (on the side); ventral to the Sylvian
fissure; involved in hearing; primary cortex is area 41
Ventricles are spaces inside of the center of the brain that are filled with cerebral spinal fluid,
and are continuous with the spinal canal; four ventricles- two lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th
ventricle; third ventricle is located inside of the thalamus, then there is a cerebral aqueduct,
and then into the fourth ventricle which then goes to connect to the central canal; ventricles
are clinically important because you can do a quick x-ray and see if they are where they should
be; have neurons that sense what is going on
The brain gets blood from two major sets of arteries; internal carotid arteries and vertebral
arteries; two vertebral arteries come together at the base to form the basilar artery; circle of
Willis forms a roundabout, and from this circle is where all of the arteries take off to go supply
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