Lecture 1: Brain and Behavior
•There are a lot of people who have it. Having delusions and hallucination, such as
hearing voices or visual hallucination. They hear people talking to them. There are
variations in this disease. There is no one gene that codes for schizophrenia. There
are more than one gene that deals with more than one disorder such as depression
and such. People are plotting against them and all sorts of weird stuff. Often hear
god talking to them. They also have delusions: thinking that people are plotting
• Many people have Schizoaffective disorder: have hallucinations and hyper and
•If you make it to the age of 30 without any symptoms you won’t have schizophrenia.
•They show poor performance in frontal lobe tasks or test on frontal lobe functions.
There is something that is fully not right in the frontal lobe. Do poor on verbal and
nonverbal memory. But most tests show that they are completely normal. There is no
tumor or nonfunctional parts. Most of them have enlarged ventricles and lighter
•The problem with these tests is that schizophrenics we put them on medications and
most of them are major tranquilizers. A lot of these patients don’t like taking these
tests, it makes them tired and not like themselves. You don’t know if these
neuropsychological tests are directly linking a symptom to a problem. You can’t
ethically take them off their medications to do these tests.
•1% is schizophrenic. In members of immediate family 10%-15% chances of you being
schizophrenics. These suggests that this is a genetic disorder.
•In dizygotic twins the ratio is 10% to 15% chances of you being schizophrenics
•If they are monozygotic twins the ratio is 40%- 75% of chances of the other child will
be a schizophrenic.
•However, it is interesting because it is not 100%.
•This one study: 12 cases of identical twins. They had to be separated at the first year
of life. One of the twins had to be schizophrenic. 9 out of the 12 was also
•Antihistomines: used to understand schizophrenia. Used when you are cold.
Antihistomines make you drozzy. They tried this on some of the schizophrenics,
some of the agitated ones, and it helped them. They weren’t that affect, but used to
calm them down. They found that drugs that calm people down, the ones that were
most affect in treating schizophrenia, were all dopamine antaganies. The ones that
were most used. The ones that were used were phenothazines. The most common
ones chlorphromazines, it was the most affect back then. Recently have cleaner