-The posterior portion deals with the primary motor strip
-Anterior to the primary motor strip is the association cortex dealing with higher order
function: planning, socially appropriate behaviour
-One of the areas hit hardest is the frontal lobe in Alzheimer’s.
-You don’t always get all of the symptoms for a disease because it is dependent on the size
location of the tumor. You only find all the symptoms if the person was in a sever accident.
-What happens in individuals who have frontal lobe lobotomies (frontal lobe removed)
-HISTORY OF FRONTAL LOBOTOMIES:
-Prefrontal area (anterior portion of the frontal lobe)
-Gall brought in the concept of phrenology (use the skull to determine personality). Based
the distinction on individuals who had the characteristics. Gall thought the anterior portion
of the frontal lobe had to be with intelligence.
-In 1930’s Jacobsen decided that he was going to test phrenology theory in monkeys. He took
a series of monkeys and trained and tested them in a series of behavioural tests. Then he
took the monkeys and removed the prefrontal area (frontal lobotomy).
He found that his monkeys had a loss of delayed response capabilities.
They could not perform if there was a delay between seeing a solution
to a problem and actually being able to perform that problem
Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA): a monkey sitting at a
table and infront is a screen and a little hole between money and
human. So the monkey can see which cup the human is putting the
treat in. The close the blinds so the animal cant respond right away
(there is a delay). Then they were allowed to pick and they couldn’t
pick the right one.
Normal monkeys when trying to get a banana and couldn’t reach they
would go get a tool to get the banana. But missing prefrontal lobe
would go to the tool but forget what they were doing so there was a
delay and thus couldn’t perform.
If he left the animals in the dark during this intermediate period,
when the animals is supposed to be thinking about how to solve the
problem, or if given sedative such as a barbiturate the animals were
able to solve the problem.
He found the problem was not in memory but in distractibility. So if in
the dark then he could remember the task because there wasn’t other
things distracting/ or emotionality.
He also found, the animals had problems in alternation. The raisin
always goes underneath the red cup. He gets 10 choices where it is
correct. The 11th choice you put it in the blue cup but monkey reaches
for the red cup. The next time he will grab the red cup. The monkey