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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 10
-FRONTAL LOBE:
-The posterior portion deals with the primary motor strip
-Anterior to the primary motor strip is the association cortex dealing with higher order
function: planning, socially appropriate behaviour
-One of the areas hit hardest is the frontal lobe in Alzheimers.
-You dont always get all of the symptoms for a disease because it is dependent on the size
location of the tumor. You only find all the symptoms if the person was in a sever accident.
-What happens in individuals who have frontal lobe lobotomies (frontal lobe removed)
-
-HISTORY OF FRONTAL LOBOTOMIES:
-Prefrontal area (anterior portion of the frontal lobe)
-Gall brought in the concept of phrenology (use the skull to determine personality). Based
the distinction on individuals who had the characteristics. Gall thought the anterior portion
of the frontal lobe had to be with intelligence.
-In 1930s Jacobsen decided that he was going to test phrenology theory in monkeys. He took
a series of monkeys and trained and tested them in a series of behavioural tests. Then he
took the monkeys and removed the prefrontal area (frontal lobotomy).
He found that his monkeys had a loss of delayed response capabilities.
They could not perform if there was a delay between seeing a solution
to a problem and actually being able to perform that problem
Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA): a monkey sitting at a
table and infront is a screen and a little hole between money and
human. So the monkey can see which cup the human is putting the
treat in. The close the blinds so the animal cant respond right away
(there is a delay). Then they were allowed to pick and they couldnt
pick the right one.
Normal monkeys when trying to get a banana and couldnt reach they
would go get a tool to get the banana. But missing prefrontal lobe
would go to the tool but forget what they were doing so there was a
delay and thus couldnt perform.
If he left the animals in the dark during this intermediate period,
when the animals is supposed to be thinking about how to solve the
problem, or if given sedative such as a barbiturate the animals were
able to solve the problem.
He found the problem was not in memory but in distractibility. So if in
the dark then he could remember the task because there wasnt other
things distracting/ or emotionality.
He also found, the animals had problems in alternation. The raisin
always goes underneath the red cup. He gets 10 choices where it is
correct. The 11th choice you put it in the blue cup but monkey reaches
for the red cup. The next time he will grab the red cup. The monkey
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tries the blue cup, and you let them get ten correct responses and then
alternate from red to blue. It takes a normal monkey a few errors and
able to adapt to the alternation. Animals with the prefrontal lobe
werent able to alternate they couldnt switch their behaviour.
Before he went to the conference he observed a female monkey. Every
time he would take her into the testing room she would get very
frustrated. She would get very angry in the testing chamber. She saw
the cart and would get angry and would run away. After the surgery
she was very calm and she had no problem.
Jacobsen he explained his results to all these neurologists. This was
the first research done on primates with frontal lobotomies. Then
Doctor Moniz a neurosurgeon said that is amazing. The removal of
frontal lobe causes the person to be pleasant and not aggressive.
Moniz tested this and started performing frontal lobotomies in
humans that were completely out of control. Used a leukotomy look
like letter opener and he cut of the frontal portion. His initial results
were on 20 patients.
All of them survived.
7 of the patients recovered
7 of the patients improved
He continued to perform until 1944. He was shot by one of his frontal
lobotomy patients and this severed his spinal cord, rendered
paraplegic.
Freeman and Watts they brought frontal lobotomies to North America.
They operated on 3500 patients. In total there was 40,000 people in
U.S. alone.
They did massive cuts, this left a lot of scar tissue, and this caused
epilepsy seizures.
18% developed seizure within a 10 year period
It started to decline in the 1950s because started to develop drugs
which were much better in treating depression, schizophrenia and
affective disorders.
-
-BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS:
-
-Intelligence:
oNormal scores on most IQ tests. IQ is not effected at all in frontal lobotomies
-Problems in changing behaviour when it is inappropriate (alternative change problem)
(Wisconsin card sort test) WCST: A set of cards that are pure white with symbols on them.
You can sort them based on different classifications and each of them are different colours.
Allow the patient to begin to sort them based on whatever they want and let them do it for
ten times and then you change it. So one time you do colour, and then you do by number. A
normal person would adapt to the pattern change but a patient with frontal lobotomy
cannot switch.
-This can be seen in everyday life when people keep doing the same behaviour over and over.
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Description
Lecture 10 - FRONTAL LOBE: - The posterior portion deals with the primary motor strip - Anterior to the primary motor strip is the association cortex dealing with higher order function: planning, socially appropriate behaviour - One of the areas hit hardest is the frontal lobe in Alzheimers. - You dont always get all of the symptoms for a disease because it is dependent on the size location of the tumor. You only find all the symptoms if the person was in a sever accident. - What happens in individuals who have frontal lobe lobotomies (frontal lobe removed) - - HISTORY OF FRONTAL LOBOTOMIES: - Prefrontal area (anterior portion of the frontal lobe) - Gall brought in the concept of phrenology (use the skull to determine personality). Based the distinction on individuals who had the characteristics. Gall thought the anterior portion of the frontal lobe had to be with intelligence. - In 1930s Jacobsen decided that he was going to test phrenology theory in monkeys. He took a series of monkeys and trained and tested them in a series of behavioural tests. Then he took the monkeys and removed the prefrontal area (frontal lobotomy). He found that his monkeys had a loss of delayed response capabilities. They could not perform if there was a delay between seeing a solution to a problem and actually being able to perform that problem Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA): a monkey sitting at a table and infront is a screen and a little hole between money and human. So the monkey can see which cup the human is putting the treat in. The close the blinds so the animal cant respond right away (there is a delay). Then they were allowed to pick and they couldnt pick the right one. Normal monkeys when trying to get a banana and couldnt reach they would go get a tool to get the banana. But missing prefrontal lobe would go to the tool but forget what they were doing so there was a delay and thus couldnt perform. If he left the animals in the dark during this intermediate period, when the animals is supposed to be thinking about how to solve the problem, or if given sedative such as a barbiturate the animals were able to solve the problem. He found the problem was not in memory but in distractibility. So if in the dark then he could remember the task because there wasnt other things distracting or emotionality. He also found, the animals had problems in alternation. The raisin always goes underneath the red cup. He gets 10 choices where it is correct. The 11 choice you put it in the blue cup but monkey reaches for the red cup. The next time he will grab the red cup. The monkey www.notesolution.com
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