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Zachariah Campbell

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Lecture 5­ October 7, 2013 Brain imaging Magneto encephalography: MEG  Exploits relationship between electrical and magnetic fields  They interact Tries to capture change in magnetic field across brain  Pros: high resolution (better depth­ magnetic signals travel farther), cons: expensive Squid­ high resolution magnetic field sensitization technique  Isocontour map­ shows surface in concentric circles relating to activity on cortex during presence  and absence of process  Brain stimulation  Electrical current used to stimulate brain tissue Used in Parkinson’s  Intercranial brain stimulation  Deep brain stimulation  Surgery­ substantia nigra lacks cells, implant stimulation device to decrease parkinsonian  symptoms  TMS  Stimulation of the brain using magnetic simulator Magnetic simulate=or small wire coil in the shape of figure 8 Non­invasive Used in depression, other disorders Can be used to map functional regions of the brain Can shut down areas of the brain temporarily No measurable impacts to brain to date  X ray imaging  First method for imaging brain  Satic 2d image of brain  conventionally radiography   passing x rays thorough skull onto an x ray sensitive film  diff types of tissue absorb rays to different degrees producing imagine that show tissue location  still used for examining skull for fractures and looking for gross brain abnormalities  smaller abnormities­ more precise technique of CT x ray involved radiation which can alter dna causing problems  Pneumoencephalography  Small amount of CSF is removed from subarachnoid space and replaced by air  X rays taken as the air moves upward and into ventricles  Ventricles stand out in the image due to air Painful Currently not used much  Impact on overall pressure of cranium  Angiography  Radiolabelled dye information on vascular system Absorbs it and shows less energy making it through  CT scanning­ more contemporary technique  3D image of brain by using a board on their center computer pushes you through column back and forth rays hitting you at different planes  had difficulty discriminating grey and white matter­ show up similar show ventricles and major fissures  functional brain imaging  provides a way to look at the brain without using dangerous or unpleasant procedures MRI  PET scan  Radioactive molecules injected 
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