Class Notes (903,519)
CA (538,001)
UTSC (32,632)
Psychology (7,991)
PSYC11H3 (41)
Lecture

Proliferation

3 Pages
88 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC11H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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towards her. These negative comments were especially likely to be reinforced by audience laughter
Even worse than the medias promotion of thinness is the proliferation in the last 5 years of pro-
anorexia websites
These websites glorify starvation and reinforce irrational beliefs about the importance of thinness
That some ppl become anorexic cuz of a pursuit of fitness rather than a pursuit of thinness
Activity anorexia- this concept refers to the loss of appetite when engaged in physical activity
Found that dancers, relative tro models, had higher rates of anorexia and more disturbed eating
attitudes
But dancers also engage in much more strenuous physical activity.
Suggest that the two interrelated motivational factors account for activity anorexia: food deprivation
increases the reinforcement effectiveness of physical activity and physical activity decreases the
reinforcement effectiveness of food
Hypothesizes that anorexics often display great interest in food and are sometimes obsesses with
food but lack positive incentives for actually eating the food
Gender Influences
Women appear to have been more heavily influenced by the cultural ideal of thinness
Women are typically valued more for their appearance whereas men gain esteem more for their
accomplishments
Women apparently are more concerned than men about being thin, are more likely to diet and are
thus more vulnerable to eating disorders.
The risk for eating disorders among groups of women who might be expected to be particularly
concerned with their weight such as models, dancers and gymnasts appears to be especially high.
Cuz the onset of eating disorders is typically preceded by dieting and other concerns about weight
Cross cultural studies
Eating disorders appear to be far more common in industrialized societies such as the US, Canada,
Japan, Australia, and Europe than in non-industrialized nations and it is also generally accepted that
eating disorders are more evident in western cultures
Young women who immigrate to industrialized western cultures may be especially prone to
developing eating disorders owing to the experience of rapid cultural changes and pressures
The wide variation in the prevalence of eating disorders across cultures suggest the importance of
culture in establishing realistic vs potentially disordered views of ones body.
In one study of 369 adolescent girls in Pakistan none met diagnostic criteria for AN and only one met
criteria for bulimia
Its difficult to compare prevalence rates across cultures accurately
The effects of introducing tv (and exposure to body shape ideals via tv) to a rural area of Fiji that had
never had tv. This study showed that within three years there was a noticeable increase in
preoccupation with weight and body shape, purging beh, and negative evaluations of body
characteristics. Interview data also indicated that the Fijian girls acknowledged social learning and
wished to emulate ppl they had seen on tv
A disorder similar to AN that exists in several non industrialized Asian countries (India, Malaysia, the
Philippines). This disorder involves severe emaciation, food refusal and amenorrgea but not a fear of
becoming fat
BN is a culture bound syndrome while AN is not. Thus AN may be much more common across
cultures and the genetic heratability of AN relative to BN may show less variability across cultures
PSYCHODYANMIC VIEWS (imp one)

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Description
 towards her. These negative comments were especially likely to be reinforced by audience laughter  Even worse than the medias promotion of thinness is the proliferation in the last 5 years of pro- anorexia websites  These websites glorify starvation and reinforce irrational beliefs about the importance of thinness  That some ppl become anorexic cuz of a pursuit of fitness rather than a pursuit of thinness  Activity anorexia- this concept refers to the loss of appetite when engaged in physical activity  Found that dancers, relative tro models, had higher rates of anorexia and more disturbed eating attitudes  But dancers also engage in much more strenuous physical activity.  Suggest that the two interrelated motivational factors account for activity anorexia: food deprivation increases the reinforcement effectiveness of physical activity and physical activity decreases the reinforcement effectiveness of food  Hypothesizes that anorexics often display great interest in food and are sometimes obsesses with food but lack positive incentives for actually eating the food Gender Influences  Women appear to have been more heavily influenced by the cultural ideal of thinness  Women are typically valued more for their appearance whereas men gain esteem more for their accomplishments  Women apparently are more concerned than men about being thin, are more likely to diet and are thus more vulnerable to eating disorders.  The risk for eating disorders among groups of women who might be expected to be particularly concerned with their weight such as models, dancers and gymnasts appears to be especially high.  Cuz the onset of eating disorders is typically preceded by dieting and other concerns about weight Cross cultural studies  Eating disorders appear to be far more common in industrialized societies such as the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe than in non-industrialized nations and it is also generally accepted that eating disorders are more evident in western cultures  Young women who immigrate to industrialized western cultures may be especially prone to developing eating disorders owing to the experience of rapid cultural changes and pressures  The wide variation in the prevalence of eating disorders across cultures suggest the importance of culture in establishing realistic vs potentially disordered views of ones body.  In one study of 369 adolescent girls in Pakistan none met diagnostic criteria for AN and only one met criteria for bulimia  Its difficult to compare prevalence rates across cultures accurately  The effects of introducing tv (and exposure to body shape ideals via tv) to a rural area of Fiji that had never had tv. This study showed that within three years there was a noticeable increase in preoccupation with weight and body shape, purging beh, and negative evaluations of body characteristics. Interview data also indicated that the Fijian girls acknowledged social learning and wished to emulate ppl they had seen on tv  A disorder similar to AN that exists in several non industrialized Asian countries (India, Malaysia, the Philippines). This disorder involves severe emaciation, food refusal and amenorrgea but not a fear of becoming fat  BN is a culture bound syndrome while AN is not. Thus AN may be much more common across cultures and the genetic heratability of AN relative to BN may show less variability across cultures PSYCHODYANMIC VIEWS (imp one)  Most propose that the core cause lies in disturbed parent-child relationships and agree that certain core personality traits such as low self esteem and perfectionism, are found among individuals with eating disorders  Symptoms of an eating disorder fulfill some need, such as the need to increase ones sense of personal effectiveness (the person succeeds in maintaining a strict diet) does not achieve the usual female sh
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