PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Hasidic Judaism, Sideburns, Boxing Day Shooting

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Published on 25 Feb 2013
Week 3 PSYC12
Lecture 2
Discrimination when buying a new car. How do we study this problem?
4 twin testers (b male, b female, w male, w female): age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same
dealer, same car
Ayres & Siegelman (1995). Results show that highest car quotes are given to the 4 twin testers in
descending order: b male, b female, w female, w male
Why would salespeople ask more money from women? Ask more money from blacks?
Stereotypes about Women:
- Because women don't know anything about cards
- Women tend to be more agreeable
Stereotypes about black males:
- They are less educated and know less about car; easier to rip off
- They are less sophisticated buyers
Movie: True Colours
Ask: Why does discrimination exist? Why do stereotypes exist?
- Whites receive cheaper car prices, better service, more housing opportunities, and more job
opportunities than blacks
Originals of Prejudice
- Hassidic Jews
-- Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet "sideburns", and religious
-- if you know what they look like, you will probably think that next time you see someone with these
characteristics, you would presume them to be Hassidic Jews
-- Categorization makes remembering things easier
Why Categorize?
- We know what to expect from all members of that category
- Infinite number of stimuli in environment
- Limited capacity cognitive system
- Essential part of learning
- Induction; humans like to make inferences of things; part of learning
- If we get rid of stereotyping, we get rid of learning
- It occurs spontaneously. It pops in your head without effort or intention
Categorization & stereotypes
- Stereotypes are traits associated with category
- Can be useful in making predictions.
- Thus, they may be based on a "kernel" of truth
- They are fast and efficient
- But, they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual
- Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups
-- In-group: groups to which we belong (Torontonian, Canadian, student at UofT)
-- Out-group: groups to which we do not belong (Caucasian, female, Christian)
--- Simplifies social world >>> Us vs. Them
- Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences
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