Lecture 8: Advanced Social Psychology = Experiencing Prejudice II (Group Differences in
-both nature and nurture contribute to intelligence
-are there group differences in intelligence based on genes? FAULTY reasoning!
-group differences....SENSITIVE issues
-Major & O’ Brien: Model of Stigmatization; how ppl determine when they are threatened and what are
-volitional responses: spend a lot of time in social comparison w/ in-group only, disengage in self-esteem
from threatened domain
-Non-volitional responses: arousal of emotionality/nervousness/worry.
Ex. u r a female in Computer Science class...few females there....not as valued in comp. Science...now, u
have to do an assignment/task.....think about the appraisals/model: my group is devalued in comp sci, lots
of men in class, I’m stigma-conscious/care about gender...my social identity is threatened...try to cope and
now, i’m nervous/worried/think about stereotype...volitionally, push them away and non-volitionally try
to control emotions...DISTRACT the central task at hand..assignment/test...THUS, u do poorly on it!
SHOWS how stereotypes can lead to poor intellectual performance!!!
-graph: Black-White IQ distribution= Bell Curve....book in mid 90’s...group diff in intelligence...IA =
measurable/meaningful....pattern in graph: each group has a mean, st. Deviation, variability; Mean for
white = 100 and for black = 90..Mean is HIGHER for whites; have high or low ppl in both groups....most
part, graphs OVERLAP....can’t determine IQ/intelligence by looking at the person’s race! The graph has
changed....now, 10 units....used to be 15 units apart 20 yrs ago...changed in 10-20 yrs....QUICK
change...undermines hereditary argument
-2nd graph: male and female math performance; done w/ meta-analysis w/ 10’s of 1000’s of ppl; there are
DIFFERENCES b/n boys and girls; positive #’s = boys do better than girls; negative #’s= girls do better
than boys ; in N.A., Western sample! At a young age/elementary school, girls outperform boys in math,
but as one grows older, go to junior/high school/college...difference FAVOURS boys and becomes
LARGER! Is this valid measure of IQ?
*There are differences in IQ and Math performances
-Race (black-white IQ differences), Sex (male-female math differences), SES (rich-poor IQ
differences)...differences in these 3 categories EXIST! Poor...lower IQ than rich
-reason for this: DIFFERENT socializing environments!!!! Fact: they r different.
MOVIE: Minnesota, by Annenberg/CPB: do tests tell tell how smart we are/well-adjusted we are? Or are
they unfair barriers? Testing and Intelligence: Philip Zimbardo; how smart r u? U can list ur
achievements/things ur good at/IQ/job; if IQ is 100....half of pop’n had higher scores than u and half had
higher...normal is 120!? Psychological Assessments: goal = how ppl differ in goals, personalities, and
behaviours. Psychometrics....mental testing in oral abilities....to c how ppl differ; SAT = measures
academic ability; ACT = measures learning and specific subject areas = COGNITIVE tests...measure
-Personality tests....non-cognitive parts of personality; interests/values/personality traits...used in clinical
psych to assess emotional/mental problems...affecting inner most thoughts; MMPI (Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory Test)...answer T/F to statements about personality and
beliefs....responses r assessed as person. Traits.
-BOTTOM LINE: get a sample/response and c how it affects their real life...testing = VERY COMMON.
Modern, Francis Golden....tried to show hereditary basis for intelligence. French, Alfred...first
intelligence test in 1905...test performance for school children; teachers had biased evaluations. Alfred
Bennet’s tests: KEY: quantification of student’s performance.....tests RARELY measured only those who
are weak/areas where children needed special help. WE have a mental age (test results measure)
regardless of biological age. Assessment brings order to chaotic society....military/education. Growing
acceptance that tests can differentiate ppl in terms of social imp. Characteristics such as leadership. Also
acceptance that there were intellectual differences according to race and SES....Black and immigrants
were INFERIOR!! 1916 (Louis), Stanford Bennet’s test: IQ (Intelligence Quotient) was made.....ratio of
mental age to chron age.....Mental age divided by Chronological age times 100 = IQ. Ex. If chronological
age = 8 with test score of age equal to 10...then IQ = 125 (10/8 * 100 = 125)
-Bennet test: standard instrument, BELIEF: intelligence is an inequality that had a large hereditary
component, the IQ test can measure this inequality, Implicit msg: IQ characterizes something essential
and unchanging about human nature...our inherited intelligence!
-Wesler, 1939...new test = dependence on language....Non-verbal sections w/ verbal sections....put
pictures in a logical sequence.
-misuse of aptitude....test should measure wut it is intended to do. Test score should be consistent w/ the
person’s ability...should be reliable/valid/standardized. Assess how the tests are used/misused.
-Alfred Bennet’s dream: To use psychological assessment would replace subjective bias evaluations w/
-assessments....big controversy. The tests tell us that some people are not capable of doing something
when they actually ARE! Reason: Tests can’t take into account the Different ways that some ppl can do
the same jobs. A person’s gender, race, and age can affect the ability to perform on a
test.....STEREOTYPE THREAT......sense that u mite be judged in terms of some stereotype...u dun have
to believe in it...but thinking others do/will judge...is enough. In math tests, women do not perform well if
gender is salient (by saying this measures womens’ ability in Math)/stereotype threat is present...w/out
it....if NOT the only girl present...almost same results.
-Alfred Bennet: intelligence = dynamic, cognitive process.... changing, but for many psychologists today
= intelligences is a SINGLE trait that’s actually measured by intelligence tests and can predict certain
kind of academic and vocational performance....in last few yrs, there are 7 intelligences.. 1)
wisdom..poet/writer , 2) Psychological/mathematical...scientist/magician....seen in SCHOOL ...by