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Lecture 6

PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Erving Goffman, Ingroups And Outgroups, Dementia

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Michael Inzlicht

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Week 6 PSYC12
PSYC12 - Experiencing prejudice I
Until this point, we have been studying stereotype from the perceiver's point of view
- Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society
- stigmatized have spoiled identity
- are discriminated against
Types of stigma according to Goffman
a) Abominations of body (e.g., fat, excessive sweating)
b) Blemishes of character (e.g., dementia, anorexia)
c) Tribal markers (e.g., skin colour, gender, creed, religion)
Identity-threat model of stigma (how the target experiences stereotype)
(Look at the slides for Major & O'Brien flow chart)
Collective representation: culture, meta-stereotype (stereotype that people have about other
people's stereotypes)
Situational cues: cues communicating stigma relevance
Personal: individual differences in perception & appraisal
Threat appraisal: is stigma relevant? Am I threatened?
Involuntary responses: anxiety, disruption, vigilance
Voluntary responses: coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit social comparisons,
Stigma's Self-Protective Properties
- A third grade teacher separated a group of white children into 2 groups (blue eye, brown eye),
and told the children that blue eyes are better than brown eyes. The children started to act
differently, and the blue eyed children stereotyped, prejudiced, and discriminated against the
brown eyes within the hour.
Stigma & Self-Esteem
- Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally
- Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem, right?
-- Reflected appraisals (if you see me poorly, I should see myself poorly too)
-- Self-fulfilling prophecies (I feel bad because others think that I act badly)
- Stigmatized have the same or higher SE than their non-stigmatized counterpart
- True for African Americans, not Caucasians
Crocker & Major, 1989
- Stigma can buffer self-esteem
- People became "stigmatized" for protection
-- It can help you not feel bad about yourself when bad things happen to you
- E.g., if a Caucasian does not find a job, he can think that affirmative action gave all the
positions to racial minorities and women
3 effects of stigma: attributional ambiguity, disidentification, & in-group comparisons
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