Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (8,000)
PSYC12H3 (400)

PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Stereotype Threat, Throy, Saccade

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

of 6
Chapter 1: stereotype threat
Latinos and blacks still trail whites in reading and mathematics at all age levels. Hasn’t hcanged
much since 1990
These gaps exist all around the world
Gender diff also exist
Not diminised since 1994 despite women being better overall students . women stil a minority in
The real problem that holds marginalized groups back is the stereotype threat, the idea that they
will be viewed as lower by hte others because of expectation
Stereotype threat: situational predicament in which individuals are at risk, ofconfirming negative
stereotypes aout their group
This fear can ultimately scare them into losing cognitive ability and therefor confirming the
Very popular phenomenon, makes ppl uncomfortable and stems away from nature vs nurture
debate saying that just the situation can have a greter effect than either
The existence and awareness of these stereotype creates a problem for reaching potential
Ch.2 role of situational cues in signaling and maintaining stereotype threat
Drawing from social identity throy,stereotype threat begins with the assumption that each
person has multiple social identities. Vigilance process initatiated when an identity’s value in a
setting becomes more salient
During vigilance phase: ppl’s attention is directed to other situational cues in the environment to
determine whether the identity may be a lability . vigilance can relax if the environmental cues
disconfirm social identity as being a source of stgma. Vigilance can increase if environmental
cues confrm that social identity will result in negative evaluation
A gender unbalanced video, women remember more were more vigilant had higher heart beat
and were less likely to feel apart of the group
Pl have diff thresholds of identity threat
Certan cues may be less threatening to people less invested in the particular domain
Ppl who are more close with their steretyoed social group are more vulnerable to stereotype
threat effect
2 cues reliably produce stereotype threat to negatively stereotype gourps for intellectual
abilities: diagnosticity of a test (validity of testing intellectual abilities) and the relevance of a
stereotype to people’s performance
Researchers can often refer to the stereotype by subtly mentioning it, or by telling the
participants that they will be avaluated on things and for fture potential this intensifies the threat
When tests are notoriously imp. It induces stereotype threat
The way the room is set up or the type of ppl in the room significantly affects the stereotyped
All types of ppl can be affected by identity threating cues and experience the cognitive,
behavioural and emotional disrutions of stereotype threat
Other peoples behaviorus and media, subtle situational cues (sexist behaviour ie.) can cause
the stereotype threat process and interfere with performance aspirations and cognitive
processes of stigmatized individuals
Situational cues tied to one’s outcomes orr interpersonal treatments are likely to be those that
have the most impa ct onppl’s psychological and hevaioural outcomes
- Stereotype threat concerns, belonging concern, authenticity concerns, trust and fairness
concerns, discrimination and devaluation concerns, marginalization/ghettoizaton/social
exclusion concerns
Cues can speack to many different concerns at once
By changing situational cues in an environment, one mght dampen the identity threat there is an
implication of stereotype threat theory
- Dentity safe setting scontain identity affirming cures which signal people that their
identity is welcomed and respected
- Dentity safe cues very in explicitness. Focus on alleviating threat signalled by
diagnosticity and stereotype relevance
- Ex. Say that the test doesn’t accurately predict academic ablity, not call it a test, shows
no racial difference/gender differences
- The manner this is done influences ppls perception of threat or safety and effectiveness
varies by social group
- Tests that explicitly rebuttal notion that there is racial difference n the evaluation show
the most reduction in stereotype threat. This is because these thoughts are pretty much
- In women same result as above. Explicit more effective than subtle
- In minority student, subtle reductions were more effective than explicit ones. (calling it a
puzzle rather than a test)
- Can introduce cues to neutralize the threatening ones.
- Critical mass: # of idenetity matess that it takes for individuals to feel they will not be
jjudged according to their social identity
o Potent safe cue
o Also sharing group membership with key individuals in settings also decreases
- Most successful focus on disconforming stigmatized individuals’ social identity concerns
o May be worried about nto fitting in as well
o Even brief exposure to cues that directly target people’s social identity concerns
by decoupling their identity from their negative experiences in a setting protect
them of the effects of stereotype threat
One cue can shape the interpretation of another (ex. Not a lot of diversity n the brochure of a
company, but has diversity policy. So the policy cue counteracts the other one and vice versa
Ch.3 an integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat
Anxiety and negative stereotype activation are overly simplistic explanations for stereotype
Also, stereotypes are nt just activated and automatically induce consistent behaviour
Involves both cognitive and affective components and engages both automatic and controlled
Stereotype threat: characterizes a concern that one might inadvertently confirm an unwanted
belief about one’s group. Motiv ation to avoid enacting any behaviour that might be seen as
Preference changes as well as the way one processes info at automatic and controlled levels
Not always conscious threat . unconscious and result in opposite of persona’s goals and
First, situratons that cue stereotype threat actvate a schema of that stereotype
Logical inconsistency s what actually soncsitutes stereotype threat. Cues an imbalance between
the stereotype group, domain of ability and concept of self
The subtle way the task is described has a great ability to acti vate stereotypes
Logical inconsistency isn’t what humans can deal with, so self-doubt arises and the association
between concept of self and the domain is changed (blacks are bad at math, i am black but
good at math. So doubt arises, maybe i am not good at math)
Doubt disrupts cognitive abilities and desire to disrove stereotype may result in o
verinterpresting certain signs as failure
Larger ERN when ver motivated to avoid mistkess or when being evaluated
Women expecting to tke difficult math test used more anxiety related words as opposed to what
they were more likely experiencing (more vigilant to signs of threat and internal experience)
Automatic effects and more controlled processes are activated by cognitive inconsistency
A core tenet of stereotype threat (stt) is that it increases motivation to disconfrm stereotype (st).
This may be unconscious
This may be good sometimes, but performance will be impaired when the task is more
cognitively challenging when one’s dominant response is activated.
Harkins saccade task revelaved that women who were told it was related to math and
visuospatial abilities were more like to saccade to the flashing light instead of the cue they were
supposed to look at, unable to control reflexthis explained by the threat increasing prepotent
response pattern.
- But women were also faster to correct, motivation to do well. This is more controlled
mode of processing
- Effected automatic and controlled responses to disconfirm stereotype
Paradox: stt cann both ncrease motivation and decrease performance
Stt taces working memory capacity (inhibits irrelevant info and focuses attn)
Individuals under threat are mentally overloaded and cognitivey depleted (schmader and johns)
Baddleys multicomponent model- stereotype threat affects owkring memory
- A domain-general central executive controls and coordinates the info active in working
- Phonological loops for verbal and coustic info and visual spatil sketchpad for visual and
a multimodal episodic buffer to bind info in to a unitary representation
Saturating central executve and phonolical loop resources with internal worries about