PSYC12 TEXTBOOK NOTES.doc

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
PSYC12 TEXTBOOK NOTES
CHAPTER 1
Groups are the basic building blocks of society
When groups are formed they tend to form closer ties to
members of their own group, and they tend to be suspicious and
rejecting of members of other groups
Prejudice: form the basis for negative feelings about other
groups
Stereotypes: believing that certain characteristics are associated
with other groups, because the outgroup are perceived to be
antithetical to the ingroup’s welfare or values
Logical analysis of intergroup hostility suggests that there is no
rational basis for disliking others simply because they belong to
another group
Lippmann believed that stereotype is the tendency of people to
think of someone or something in similar terms, as having similar
attributes based on a common feature shared by each
We pay attention to stereotype consistent info and disregard info
that is inconsistent with our stereotypes
Allport defined stereotype as an exaggerated belief associated
with a category
Stereotypes is any generalization about a group whether an
observer believes it is justified or not
Schemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our
knowledge of a stimulus, our expectations for the motives or
behaviour of the stimulus, and our feelings toward the stimulus
Cultural stereotype: describes shared or communitywide
patterns of beliefs
Individual stereotype: describes the beliefs held by an individual
about the characteristics of a group
One’s cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as
one’s individual stereotype about the group
Stereotype is similar to attitude (general evaluation of some
object)
Attitudes comprise of affect, behaviour and cognition
Discrimination: any negative behaviour directed toward an
individual based on their membership in a group
Prejudice: individual has a negative evaluation of another
stimulus. Can be felt or expressed. May be directed at a group or
an individual because he is apart of that group
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Best predicator of negative outgroup prejudice is not negative
feelings about the outgroup but rather a lack of positive
emotions
More obvious form of P are more likely to be based on strong
negative emotions, whereas more subtle types of P may be
based on an absence of positive feelings about the outgroup
Self-categorization theory: people view themselves as a member
of a social category or group (race, national, religious group).
Intergroup interactions will make particular group
categorizations, depending on the nature of the group
interaction. Enhance the perception of the outgroup as
homogenous
Appraisal: set of cognitions that are attached to a specific
emotion. Emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive
significance and self-relevance of the people and events in one’s
environment
Smith suggests that appraisals invariably involve the self,
because they have relevance to one’s goals in some fashion
Smith also says that it is too vague to say that prejudice is a
positive or negative feelings about another group, because our
emotions reactions to other groups are quite specific. Also
suggests that if we are prejudiced against another group, then
we should react with the same negative affect to all members of
the group every time we encounter them. Eg. Can hate the group
as a whole, but may like a friend of the same nationality/race
Subtyping: the prejudiced individual maintains a negative affect
toward the group but creates a separate category for specific
members, thereby allowing the perceiver’s stereotypes to persist
in the face of what would otherwise be a stereotype
disconfirming case
How we react to other people doesn’t depend on the type of
group member they are, but who a person is, in what context
and how we appraise that individual in terms of our goals
How we react to any outgroup member depends on what self-
category is salient for us at that moment, in what context the
interactions occurs and how that person helps or hinders our
movement toward salient personal or group goals at that time
Concepts such as affect, emotion or feelings presuppose a
physiological reaction therefore our ability to measure feelings or
affect toward outgroups is not as precise as our measurements
of people’s evaluations, attitudes or beliefs about other groups
Prejudice is currently measures by standardized self-report
measures that assess the endorsement of statements about the
characteristics of a group, feelings about the group and
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behaviour toward the group and its members
Prejudice occurs between groups, involves an evaluation
(positive/negative) of a group, is a biased perception of a group
and is based on the real or imagined characteristics of the group
Balance theory: ones attitudes, behaviours and evaluation
toward another person should be cognitively consistent, or else
one experiences a state of imbalance, which is an aversive state
of cognitive arousal (called cognitive dissonance)
Reasoned action theory: our beliefs about a group will be
determined by our attitudes toward a group
The relationship between an attitude and subsequent attitude-
relevant behaviour is much stronger if one aggregates multiple
behaviours into a single behaviour measure. Much more likely to
be consistent around a true behavioural tendency
The best way to predict someone’s action in a given context is to
know how they think about that context and the stimuli within it,
then knowing the individual’s attitude ought to allow the
researcher to predict with a fair degree of accuracy the
individual’s behaviour in the context
People who are less educated, distracted and with lower self-
esteem tended to be more likely to be persuaded
Motivational-reinforcement theory: the prevalence of prejudice
and stereotyping at that time was attributable to the need for
social approval and self-esteem
Frustration-aggression theory: frustration leads to aggression,
and a special type of aggression is feelings of prejudice towards
others
Not all frustration leads to aggression and not all prejudice is
caused by frustration. Any negative affect is likely to elicit
aggressive feelings
People with an authoritarian personality tend to be prejudice
(factors that threaten one’s values)
P and S are a result of perceived group threat. If one perceived
that a member of an outgroup impeded one’s goals, such an
event may evoke in the perceiver the idea that the outgroup
poses a threat to one’s ingroup and not just to one’s personal
goals
Realistic-conflict theory: P and S of outgroups arises when groups
compete against one another for scarce resources
Attribution theory: the cause are attributed to either internal
characteristics of the person or the situational pressures or
other environmental factors external to the individual. P and S
emerge as a result of cognitive processes that lead people to
disproportionately suspect negative motivations or causes for
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Document Summary

Intergroup interactions will make particular group categorizations, depending on the nature of the group interaction. Enhance the perception of the outgroup as homogenous: appraisal: set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion. Also suggests that if we are prejudiced against another group, then we should react with the same negative affect to all members of the group every time we encounter them. Any negative affect is likely to elicit aggressive feelings: people with an authoritarian personality tend to be prejudice (factors that threaten one"s values, p and s are a result of perceived group threat. Illusory correlations: often perceive a relationship between variables that are only weakly correlated or not correlated at all. Attitude object: anything about which one forms an. Attitude have both an affective and cognitive component. Aversive racism: white people truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as nonprejudice, however they possess negative feelings about blacks.

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