People have a tendency to spontaneously humanize or dehumanize objects, animals, and people. Dehumanization is evidence that when out-group members are perceived as relatively more (cid:862)a(cid:374)i(cid:373)al-like(cid:863) or (cid:862)less tha(cid:374) hu(cid:373)a(cid:374)(cid:863) a(cid:374)d thus differe(cid:374)t fro(cid:373) a(cid:374)d (cid:862)i(cid:374)ferior(cid:863) to o(cid:374)e"s i(cid:374)-group. Associations between humans and nonhuman animals have been used to justify slavery, genocide, torture, and widespread violence against immigrants. Dehumanization: a precursor to moral exclusion; the process by which stigmatized groups are pla(cid:272)es (cid:862)outside the (cid:271)ou(cid:374)dary i(cid:374) (cid:449)hi(cid:272)h (cid:373)oral (cid:448)alues, rules, a(cid:374)d (cid:272)o(cid:374)sideratio(cid:374)s of fair(cid:374)ess apply(cid:863) Different from violating moral rules which lead to remorse and guilt. Haslam: theoretical perspectives on dehumanization share several important similarities: Dehumanized groups are placed beyond boundaries of moral consideration. Dehumanization is an important precondition/ consequence of violence. Dehumanization is conceived as a motivated phenomenon that serves individual, interpersonal, or intergroup functions. Infra-humanization: the te(cid:374)de(cid:374)(cid:272)y to attri(cid:271)ute (cid:373)ore (cid:862)hu(cid:373)a(cid:374)-(cid:374)ess(cid:863) to o(cid:374)e"s i(cid:374)-group than to out-groups.