PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Devaluation, Uncle Leo, Cleft Lip And Cleft Palate

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Page:
of 4
PSYC12 WINTER 2013
LECTURE # 6 EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE
Let’s take a look at the Target’s Point of View
We do not know the effects of prejudice and how people cope with it
The Lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story
Matthew Sheppard Young Gay Man went to a Gay Bar. Two men went there
and looking for a fight, pretended to be gay themselves.
Stigma
Possession of a trait/characteristic that is DEVALUED by society
Stigmatized have “spoiled identity”
Discriminated against
Types of Stigma
Abominations of body Cleft Palate, Obesity, Scars
Blemishes of Character Aging, Promiscuous
Tribal Markers Race, Age
I-Clicker What type of stigma is being aged 73?
Abominations of Body
Blemishes of Character
Tribal Markers
Age is not a Stigma
ARE MALES THE NEW TARGET?
“It’s his turn: men claim discrimination at work”
A MODEL OF STIGMA REACTIONS
Major & O’Brien, 2005
An Identity-Threat Model of Stigma
o Collective Representations: Culture, Meta - Stereotype
o Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance, type of
people you are, location
o Personal Characteristics: Individual differences in perception and
appraisal, Stigma Conscious, Personality, Care about Domain, Identify
with group or not
Identity Threat Appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I
threatened?
Nonvolitional Responses: Anxiety, Disruption,
Vigilance
Volitional Responses: Coping with threat, blaming,
discrimination, limit social comparisons,
disidentification
PSYC12 WINTER 2013
o Outcomes: Self-Esteem, Performance, Health
Stigma & Self Esteem
Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally
Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem, right?
o Reflected Appraisals
o Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Wrong
o Stigmatized have he same or higher, SE than non-stigmatized
Crocker & Major, 1989
Stigma can buffer self-esteem
Story of how I became “stigmatized” for protection
Meta-Stereotypes: Stereotypes a person has about what other’s think about
them
3 Effects of Stigma: Attributional ambiguity, disidentification, & in group
comparisons
o Attributional Ambiguity
Blame discrimination vs. blaming self
Discount negative feedback
o Disidentification
Disengage self-esteem form stereotyped domain
Value dimensions where in-group fares well
o In-group comparisons
Limit comparisons to in-group members
Segregated environments
Accurate self-evaluations
Avoid painful comparisons
Example of how Muslims cope with airport screening
Video
Experiment of doing discrimination between blue and brown-eyed people
Children have to be told this is wrong, but wanted them to experience
prejudice
Experiment, Crocker et al., 1991
Hypothesis: Stigmatized can protect self-esteem by attributing NEGATIVE
feedback to prejudice
Method: Blacks to become “Friends” with “White Student”
o Subjects receive positive vs. negative feedback
o They are seen vs. unseen
o Attributions to discrimination, self-esteem
Results Attributions to Prejudice as a Function of Feedback and Visibility
o When you receive positive feedback, you are more likely to attribute it
to prejudice when seen.
PSYC12 WINTER 2013
o When you receive NEGATIVE feedback, you are more likely to
attribute it to prejudice when SEEN vs. unseen but in general you
will attribute it to prejudice more so than positive feedback.
Results - Self Esteem as a function of Feedback and Visibility
o Positive Feedback
Seen: Self Esteem decreases
Unseen: Self Esteem increases
o Negative Feedback
Seen: Self Esteem increases
Unseen: Self Esteem Decreases
o Order of Results
Unseen Positive Feedback gives you the most self esteem
Seen Negative Feedback gives minimal increase in self esteem
Seen Positive: Feedback drops greater
Unseen Negative: Feedback drops
Attributions to discrimination can buffer self-esteem from negative feedback
People discount feedback and don’t feel so bad after negative events
Attributions to discrimination can hurt self esteem after positive feedback
Affirmative Action
I Clicker Crocker et al. Found that
Blacks make attributions to prejudice when their race is known
Blacks make attributions to personal merit when race is known
After positive feedback, Blacks feel worse about themselves
After negative feedback, Blacks feel better about themselves
After negative feedback, Blacks feel worse about themselves
I Clicker According to Major & O’Brien, which of he following does not
contribute to threat appraisal
Personal characteristics
Volitional responses
Situational cues
Collective representations.
Personal Characteristics
Group Identification
o More likely to see self as target
o Interpret ambiguous cues as stigma-relevant
Domain Identification
o Care about stereotyped domain
o More likely to be affected by identity threat
o Example: Women in Science and Engineering may be more aware of
the stigma
Stigma Consciousness

Document Summary

Let"s take a look at the target"s point of view. We do not know the effects of prejudice and how people cope with it. The lion"s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story. Matthew sheppard young gay man went to a gay bar. Two men went there and looking for a fight, pretended to be gay themselves. Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society. Abominations of body cleft palate, obesity, scars. It"s his turn: men claim discrimination at work . Volitional responses: coping with threat, blaming, discrimination, limit social comparisons, disidentification. Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem, right: reflected appraisals, self-fulfilling prophecies. Wrong: stigmatized have he same or higher, se than non-stigmatized. Story of how i became stigmatized for protection. Meta-stereotypes: stereotypes a person has about what other"s think about them. 3 effects of stigma: attributional ambiguity, disidentification, & in group comparisons: attributional ambiguity.