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Lecture 7

PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Mena, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Ingroups And Outgroups

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Michael Inzlicht

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Lecture 7: Stereotype Threat I
Situational, something here as youa re taking a test can influence your performance (not
environment like family, not genes) has to do witht hat situation, maybe what is going on in your
Steroetype threat, prime situational explanation that can account for variance in race differences in
Situational phenomenon where at risk of confirming negative sterotype of group, become anxious,
aroused, can drive subsequent thoughts, behaviuors and performance
Movie: Testing and Intelligence
Can IQ tests tell us how intelligent we are?
One way to answer how smart you are is by grades, accomplishments, jobs, or what you are good at,
or could just give one number .. IQ
If IQ 100, average, that means half of population will have higher scores than yours
Psychologists try to put a tape measure to the mind
How people differ has been a target of measurement
Most well known test are those measuring intelligence and then those that measure your developed
abilities (SAT) or those that are specific (ACT), cognitive tests
Personality tests, itnerests values and personality traits
Projected tests like Rokshark assess mental problems, inner most thoughts reflected
MMPI Minesota multiphasic personality test, hundreds of statements, assess whether
characteristics of ppl normal or abnormal
For all these tests, bottom line is to gather sample of responses, predict future eprformance in real
life situation
Ancient chinese empress first test (if we exclude adam and eve)
Binet, to test and go passed teachers biased performance
Binet's appraoch was quantificaiton of students performacne, great number of students were
tested, norm was created based on average score, test results were mental age
Binet's test had big effect in US, vast public school system were emerging, new immigrants, militants
had to be tested for intelligence and aptitude
Assesment seen as way to bring order to society, seperating those that could benefit from education
from those seemed incompetent
Growing attention to alledged intellectual differnece according to race
New version Stanford-Binet intelligent test, new concept, intelligence quotiont= IQ
IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100
(10/8) x 100 = 125
Idea was that IQ wsa unchangeable, inherited intelligent
David Wextler , new test to see problem with previous, non-verbal sections for those that had
language difficulties
o Told to put pictures in logical sequence
o Later revisions most frequently used assessments
Thousands of psychologists main work uses these tests
Test has to be valid ( measure what we are interested in) and reliable (measure same thing all the
time) and make sure ppl we test same ppl when they get older
Binet's dream was that psychological assessment would replace bias methods with unbiased

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If coached specifically for the test, then problem , self fulfilling prophecy if told themsevles I am a C
Stereotype threat, Steele, standford
Testing women's performance compared to men on math exams,
o Gave both men and women test
o If put under stereotype threatening experience, just before take test, in this particular test not
capable of discriminating mena nd women's performance (irrelevent to her perforamcen,
when create this then women's performance goes up)
o Sense of how this steroetype threat phenomenon can actually effect performance in person's
Binet, intelligence is dynamic cognitive aspect
Gardner of Harvard
o Seven intelligences,
One is mathematical, second is language/linguistic
If have language and logic
There is muscial intelligence, composer, think musically
Spatial intelligence, think about world closet o you in terms of spatial aspects
Kinesthetic intelligence
Two personal intelligence, interpersonal (teacher, clinicial) and intra(within person
)intelligence, how you use intelligence to solve problems
o Combinations among those than can cover most intelligence
Yale university, Sternberg, practical intelligence
o How to find best route to get somewhere
o Test for spatial ability, get between two places on map
o Low correlation between practical aspect of intelligence and other intellectual ones like SAT
Look at how well standard intelligence tests predict how well someone will do for managers,
doctors, business men
o Very low correlation
When interveiw people highly successful, what really matters isn't what they learned in college but
what they pick up on the job
Find test predicts performance on test 2x more than other tests like IQ but not correlated to IQ tests
Recorders to measure brains response , EEG recording, of certain brain waves, p300 waves, sensitive
to sudden interuptions, brain of smarter person will have smarter p300 waves over time, becuase
adjusts faster
Group differences in Measurement of Intellectual Performance
Most contraversial aspect is IQ tests
Contraversial question, do whites/blacks differ intellectually
Reflect managing how you respond as well, more ppl said yes to white vs asian than white vs black

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Know this well, we talked about volitional responses, engage in attributional ambiguity, no personal
responsibility, may disidentify form a domain, may engage in ingroup comparisons at expense of
engaging in outgorup comparisons
Stereotype threat may invoke distress, anxiety arousal, biological difficult to control considered
nonvolitional response, outcome is poor test performacne for example
Male-Female Math Performance Difference
This data is old, may look different nowadays
Difference favouring girls in elementary school (negative) but in junior high, high school, so on,
favouring boys/men
Across various tests, SAT, classroom tests, meta analysis
Positive means favouring men and negaitve favouring girls
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