PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Biceps, Triceps Brachii Muscle, Ingroups And Outgroups

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
PSYC12 Lec 10
How can we improve the situation? Reduce prejudice and biases?
o Individual approaches
o Group-based approaches
o Target approaches
Pessimism in prejudice research
o This class has focused on the dark side of psych what happens when things go
wrong, etc.
Stereotypes are functional and adaptive how we learn about the world,
unfortunately has negative consequences
o Our world conspires against us to make us more prejudice culture, our
subgroup, our own psychology
o Are automatic and implicit
People don’t want to admit to it honestly but it doesn’t mean it’s gone
away just changed form
Inevitable forms of prejudice will we always have these prejudices
o Basic message of these causes: prejudice is NOT benign, has a long term effect,
etc.
What about the bright side?
o Important that people are aware of own biases and world biases but also important
that there are things we can do to make the world better
Individual approaches
o Approaches that target any one person
Context and associations
o Importance of context and associations
o Having an ad of mayor + vice mayor that is a black woman
o Graphic of OPP website images associated with a white man and there is also a
black man and Asian woman
Indicates they are diverse and open
o Putting people of different races, genders, etc. in various contexts make them
seem more human
Helps build new contexts and associations and the groups to which they
belong
Can have top-down influences of media affecting us positively
Study: implicit attitudes towards black people on IAT
o Wittenbrink et al., 2001
Movie and IAT people find pro-white anti-black
Priming in context
In one study, exposed people to movie clips one set blacks are
associated positively
Second study negative depiction linking blacks with gangs
Results: people exposed to positive association film showed diminished
IAT bias effects than those seeing negative film clips
o Another study done with implicit associations people measure bad with black,
etc. BUT images primed with black and white people with full body photos.
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Sometimes people looked in positive context or urban, rundown, graffiti wall
context
Found that context made a difference when blacks were shown in church
made less negative associations
o Usual messages received from media do make a difference can shape the kinds
of associations we have with certain groups
o If putting images of people in police or as vice mayor, also showing them as role
models people with authority, power; people you might look up to one day
can also affect how blacks see their own group
Instead of just seeing pro sports black players, seeing black politicians,
etc.
Study:
o Shown that can get movements in IAT by having people play a videogame takes
advantage of some things we know about the body
o Some research shows that some muscles are associated with certain motivational
tendencies
Approach tendency
Avoidance tendency
o Turns out that when we flex and extend certain muscles, these prime certain
motivational state
E.g. curling arms towards self = approach, motivational
Action of the bicep = approach
Action of triceps = avoid
o What if they got people to flex their biceps while looking at black people and
avoid typically liked stimuli white people
o Method: had people view images and had joystick that they had to push when
seeing white face and pull when seeing black face
Another condition: opposite approach white and avoid black
Then people did IAT
o Results: those people who did this videogame where approaching black faces,
showed diminished pro-white bias on the IAT was done with 300 different
pictures
After an hour, showed improvement of associations
Copied study at UTSC
o When people approach blacks do not categorize/stereotype as much at level of
behaviour and brain
o Is a proof of concept can change attitudes through actions, movies, certain
actions
Counter-stereotypic role models
o Females in science negative stereotype that women are not good in math or hard
sciences (engineering, comp sci, etc.)
o Can exposure to counter-stereotypic people reduce implicit prejudice?
Looked at women’s colleges
By simply comparing women who go to a female only college vs. a co-ed
college, do attitudes change as a function of being in this environment?
Dasgupta & asgari, 2004
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o Hypothesized that women who go to women colleges will have less stereotyped
views of women than women in co-ed colleges
Due to exposure to counter-stereotypical women, not to pre-existing
differences
o Method: looked at women in womens vs. co-ed colleges
Women in math vs. non-math classes
DV: IAT male/female and leader/supporter categorizations
Leadership is associated with male and being a supporter is usually
associated with female
Results:
o Influence of college environment and time spent in college on automatic beliefs
about gender
Positive numbers associating men with leadership
o First year pre-existing differences during this time. Women that self-select by
going to women’s colleges are less likely to associate men with leadership than
those that go to co-ed colleges
o Second year see a change that women in women’s college are showing an
effect that favours women such that, women are no longer associating leadership
with males
Co-ed more likely to associate male with leadership
o If people took very few math and science classes, see a pre-existing difference
that is there
See a pre-existing difference but the more classes that are taken with male
professors and learning about famous male scientists and math stuff
larger effect of males associated with leadership
Those in women school do not show an affect at all do not associate men
with leadership
Not having men in the room allows women to feel less dominated are
more free
Conclusion
o Exposure to counter-stereotypic role models can reduce stereotypical associations
o BUT:
Is this due to role model or peers? May not be about professors, but peers.
Likely is a little bit of both
Group-based Approaches
o People believe they are more likely to be prejudiced by growing up in Toronto or
going to UTSC very diverse places
Confirmatory
Generalization
o Something we strive for is that our positive interactions with various groups
generalizes to the group as a whole
Contact theory being exposed to different groups can make attitudes
more positive but only to the extent that positive interactions can be
generalized to the group as a whole
o Need generalization or will have subtypes
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Document Summary

Reduce prejudice and biases: individual approaches, group-based approaches, target approaches. Pessimism in prejudice research: this class has focused on the dark side of psych what happens when things go wrong, etc. Stereotypes are functional and adaptive how we learn about the world, unfortunately has negative consequences: our world conspires against us to make us more prejudice culture, our subgroup, our own psychology, are automatic and implicit. People don"t want to admit to it honestly but it doesn"t mean it"s gone away just changed form. Inevitable forms of prejudice will we always have these prejudices: basic message of these causes: prejudice is not benign, has a long term effect, etc. What about the bright side: important that people are aware of own biases and world biases but also important that there are things we can do to make the world better. Individual approaches: approaches that target any one person.

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