PSYC12H3 Lecture Notes - Hasidic Judaism, Stereotype, Ingroups And Outgroups

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
PSYC12 Lec 2
Origins of Stereotypes
- NOT cumulative exams 50 % text, 50% class
- People have tested what happens if they go to car dealers with different race or gender
and who was given the higher quotes
Discrimination when buying a new car
- Do this experiment by going to the field and:
o Control for behaviour
o Dress them the same
o Control for age, etc
- Match people as much as they can and get the results
- 4 twin testers: age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer, same car
Ayres & Siegelman (1995)
- Results:
o Initial price offered by the sales person: despite white males having the stereotype
of having the most money, were offered the lowest price; black males were
offered a higher price
o Females were offered higher prices than the white male, while the black female
was offered more than the white female
o Black males black females white females white males
- Why would salespeople ask for more money from women? And from Blacks?
o Stereotype that women don’t know much about cars
o Stereotype that women are nicer can take advantage of them
o More it’s specific interaction – white male salesperson
Movie: True Colours
- Why does discrimination exist? Why do stereotypes exist?
o Fear
o For cities that are more “white” dominated
- Does this happen in Toronto?
o Tailing black people
- In Toronto, it is normal for people to have hijabs whereas it would be different up north
Origins of Stereotypes
Categorization
- Stereotyping comes from the fact that our minds are built on the basis of categorization
- If we didn’t categorize objects into bins, categories, labels, we would go somewhere new
and always be amazed
- Hassidic Jews wear black hats, shoes, religious, etc
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o If you’re exposed to a Jew and are exposed to this categorization, if you see
someone dressed this way, you’ll know that they are a Jew
Why do we categorize?
- Infinite number of stimuli in environment
- Even visual perception since we know what tables look like, we’ll know what they are
like
- Problem: we generalize
o We do this because we have a limited cognitive system
o Can’t control every categorization
- Induction: going beyond the data in front of you and making and inference
- Essential part of learning
o If we got rid of stereotyping, we’d get rid of learning
- Occurs spontaneously don’t need to think about it actively; it just pops in your head
- Some of the earliest work was done in 1970s (taylor & someone) group of 6 people
working on a play
o 3 men, 3 women discussing and took turns talking
o People were shown these videos and were given a surprise memory test
o Ask who said which sentences had to name who said what
o Many mistakes; had a pattern people tended to make mistakes about what the
women said among one another and what the men said among each other
Categorized between men and women
Not done actively
Categorization & Stereotypes
- Stereotypes: Traits associated with a category; not negative, positive just a set of traits
you think about with people
- Useful in making predictions
- Based on a bit of truth
o E.g. Jews are actually very religious
- Fast and efficient
- Stereotypes are also over-generalizations; not all Jews know everything about the Bible
Cognitive
- We are cognitive misers want to save resources and energy
- By using stereotypes, can use our minds for other things
Groups
- On a basic level: Categorize based on “me” vs “not-me”
o In-groups and out-groups
- In-groups: groups you belong to (female, U of T student, Filipino, Toronto-nian, etc/)
- Out-groups: groups you do not belong to (male, YorkU student, etc.)
o This simplifies the world; makes it easier to navigate
o BUT there are many consequences
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Document Summary

Not cumulative exams 50 % text, 50% class. People have tested what happens if they go to car dealers with different race or gender and who was given the higher quotes. Do this experiment by going to the field and: control for behaviour, dress them the same, control for age, etc. Match people as much as they can and get the results. 4 twin testers: age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer, same car. And from blacks: stereotype that women don"t know much about cars, stereotype that women are nicer can take advantage of them, more it"s specific interaction white male salesperson. Why do stereotypes exist: fear, for cities that are more white dominated. Does this happen in toronto: tailing black people. In toronto, it is normal for people to have hijabs whereas it would be different up north. Stereotyping comes from the fact that our minds are built on the basis of categorization.

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