It is reasonable to suggest that individuals should have a rather stable
feeling toward the out-group as a whole, which may be termed chronic out-
People can also have an affective reaction within an interaction with a
specific out-group member, and this can be termed episodic out-group
Chronic Out-group Affect. Attitudes have traditionally been viewed as
stable, enduring evaluations of an attitude object.
An attitude object is defined as anything about which one forms an
attitude (e.g. idea, person, object)
This idea certainly holds true for the notion of out-group attitudes.
Allport: “a fixed idea that accompanies a category”
Because one’s out-group attitude was believed to be a stable evaluation of
the out-group and its members, it was assumed that any valuation of the
out-group member in the future, regardless of the context, would be a direct
result of the simple recall of the perceiver’s stored evaluation of the out-
In other words, each time the attitude object is perceived or remembered,
the evaluation will trigger beliefs and other information associated with the
object, as well as enduring feelings associated with the attitude object
The affect that one feels toward the out-group, as a result of one’s enduring
attitude toward the out-group can be termed chronic out-group affect.
Aversive racism is used to describe the prejudice toward African Americans
that characterizes many White American’s attitudes.
Aversive racists truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as
nonprejudiced. However, they also express negative feelings about African
A number of possible sources
Differences in physical appearance between Caucasians and African
Americans can fuel this negative affect
The multiple effects of mere categorization of people into in-groups an out-
group has biasing effects for the perceiver on the perception and evaluation
of people, irrespective of objective evaluations of the individual being
People in the in-group are (1) assumed to be more similar in beliefs (2)
evaluated more favorable (3) the recipients of more positive behavior by the