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Lecture

Chapter 3 notes: Feeling Versus Thinking in the Activation and Application of Stereotypes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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CHAPTER 3:: FEELING VERSUS THINKING IN THE
ACTIVATION AND APPLICATION OF STEREOTYPES10-08-07 4:13 PM
MOOD
A major benefit of the cognitive approach to stereotyping has been the
demonstration of the important influence of expectations about social groups
on social judgments and attitudes and behaviour toward out groups.
Traditionally, emotions were thought to contribute importantly to the
development and endurance of stereotypes.
The history of intergroup relations is replete with evidence that intense
emotions guide the thoughts and actions of people in intergroup contexts
Affect plays a major role in the way that information about social groups and
group members is processed
Affect influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may
determine which of many social representations are primed, and which
characteristics in a given representation become activated.
Affect may also influence the extent to which the individual exerts
information processing efforts
Affect also becomes associated with social group labels through learning
processes
When affect and physiological arousal are associated with group members,
they will influence how many information about the out-group member is
interpreted, how the perceiver responds to the out-group member, and
whether the perceiver tends to interact with members of the target group in
the future.
TYPES OF INTERGROUP AFFECT
Bodenhausen has introduced the useful distinction between incidental
affect and integral affect.
Incidental affect: defined as affect that is elicited by situations unrelated
to the intergroup context
Integral affect: defined as affect that is elicited within the intergroup
context and involves the stereotyped out-group.
Can also arise merely form thinking about the out-group
Bodenhausen notes that much research on stereotyping has utilized
incidental affect,
www.notesolution.com
It is reasonable to suggest that individuals should have a rather stable
feeling toward the out-group as a whole, which may be termed chronic out-
group affect.
People can also have an affective reaction within an interaction with a
specific out-group member, and this can be termed episodic out-group
affect.
Chronic Out-group Affect. Attitudes have traditionally been viewed as
stable, enduring evaluations of an attitude object.
An attitude object is defined as anything about which one forms an
attitude (e.g. idea, person, object)
This idea certainly holds true for the notion of out-group attitudes.
Allport: “a fixed idea that accompanies a category
Because ones out-group attitude was believed to be a stable evaluation of
the out-group and its members, it was assumed that any valuation of the
out-group member in the future, regardless of the context, would be a direct
result of the simple recall of the perceivers stored evaluation of the out-
group member.
In other words, each time the attitude object is perceived or remembered,
the evaluation will trigger beliefs and other information associated with the
object, as well as enduring feelings associated with the attitude object
The affect that one feels toward the out-group, as a result of ones enduring
attitude toward the out-group can be termed chronic out-group affect.
Aversive racism is used to describe the prejudice toward African Americans
that characterizes many White Americans attitudes.
Aversive racists truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as
nonprejudiced. However, they also express negative feelings about African
Americans.
A number of possible sources
Differences in physical appearance between Caucasians and African
Americans can fuel this negative affect
The multiple effects of mere categorization of people into in-groups an out-
group has biasing effects for the perceiver on the perception and evaluation
of people, irrespective of objective evaluations of the individual being
perceived.
People in the in-group are (1) assumed to be more similar in beliefs (2)
evaluated more favorable (3) the recipients of more positive behavior by the
www.notesolution.com
perceiver than are members of out groups (4) found to be more attractive
by the perceiver.
Some suggest that social and cultural factors also contribute to the anti
Black affect felt by aversive racists.
Their negative feelings about African Americans are often kept out of
awareness so that such feelings do not threaten their view of themselves as
egalitarian and nonprejudiced.
The particular negative affective state that has been investigated the most is
anxiety, because it is commonly experienced b y individuals in an intergroup
interaction.
Anxiety can also lead to increased stereotyping by the perceiver, an
avoidance of future intergroup interaction and attempts by the perceiver to
control others
According to Stephan ands Stephan, the amount and conditions of
intergroup contact are crucial determinants in whether the individual will
experience anxiety prior to, or during, interactions with the out-group.
Research suggests that an important determinant of the type of chronic
racial affect that the perceiver feels in the intergroup context is the degree
to which the out-group member is culturally dissimilar from the perceiver.
Djiker identified four types of emotion that appeared to be strongly related
to ethnic attitudes: positive mood, anxiety, irritation and concern.
Close contact tended to be more negative with a group that is more
culturally dissimilar from Dutch perceivers.
Some research also suggest that intergroup affect is a better determinant of
attitudes and behavior toward ethnic groups than are cognitions about the
ethnic group, but others suggest that our cognitions about members of the
out-group influence how we feel about the out-group.
Episodic Out-group Affect. Ones intergroup-related affect can also be a
result of a specific interaction with a specific individual member of the out-
group. This affect can also result from the imagined interaction with an
individual from the out-group.
Incidental Affect. Feelings that have no origination associated with the
out-group can to be characterized as incidental affect. Results indicated that
both incidental sadness and happiness significantly reduced the perception of
out-group variability. It appears that affect induced in a context unrelated to
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Description
CHAPTER 3:: FEELING VERSUS THINKING IN THE ACTIVATION AND APPLICATION OF STEREOTYPES 10-08-07 4:13 PM MOOD A major benefit of the cognitive approach to stereotyping has been the demonstration of the important influence of expectations about social groups on social judgments and attitudes and behaviour toward out groups. Traditionally, emotions were thought to contribute importantly to the development and endurance of stereotypes. The history of intergroup relations is replete with evidence that intense emotions guide the thoughts and actions of people in intergroup contexts Affect plays a major role in the way that information about social groups and group members is processed Affect influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of many social representations are primed, and which characteristics in a given representation become activated. Affect may also influence the extent to which the individual exerts information processing efforts Affect also becomes associated with social group labels through learning processes When affect and physiological arousal are associated with group members, they will influence how many information about the out-group member is interpreted, how the perceiver responds to the out-group member, and whether the perceiver tends to interact with members of the target group in the future. TYPES OF INTERGROUP AFFECT Bodenhausen has introduced the useful distinction between incidental affect and integral affect. Incidental affect: defined as affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context Integral affect: defined as affect that is elicited within the intergroup context and involves the stereotyped out-group. Can also arise merely form thinking about the out-group Bodenhausen notes that much research on stereotyping has utilized incidental affect, www.notesolution.com
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