First, researchers need too be aware that individuals bring their own
intergroup experiences and biases and their own personality characteristics
to the contact situation.
Next, the situation must have Allport’s four necessary conditions and
Pettigrew’s additional necessary condition—the potential to become friends
with the outgroup members --- in order for any prejudice and stereotype
reduction to take place.
Next, when in group and outgroup members encounter each other in an
initial contact situation, the group members will regard each other with initial
anxiety but then begin categorization, in which they being to see each other
in terms of their personalities and characteristics, rather than their group
Established, prolonged contact facilitates salient categorization, whereby
group members begin to think of the outgroup members as representative of
the outgroup in general and begin to change their negative view of the
The last stage entails recategorization. [The intergroup context is configured
to encourage a breakdown of “us” versus “them” distinct categories, and to
form a broader “we” category, by making members of both groups aware
that they have more in common on a number of other dimensions that far
outweigh their differences in race, gender or other broad category
membership.] Unfortunately most intergroup contact situations never
reach this stage. [Page 245]
SHERIF’S ROBBER’S CAVE STUDY: THE SUPERORDINATE GOAL
Sherif had two groups of boys compete for a scarce resource.
The problem he proposes represented a super ordinate goal, in that no
group cold remedy the situation alone.
Sheriff’s study nice showed, in a very real setting, that prejudice and
outgroup hostility can be caused by competition, but can be greatly reduced
(or eliminated) via intergroup cooperation on a super ordinate goal.
Common In-group Identity
There is great evidence to support the idea that prejudice can be greatly
reduced through the encouragement of a super ordinate in-group identities.
Gaertner, Dovidio, Anastasio, Bachman and Rust proposed that intergroup
prejudice can be reduced by breaking down the salience of the groups’