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Lecture

Chapter 9

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 9 PSYC12 11/04/2011
Reducing prejudice
-The Contact Hypothesis
oPeople tend to make assumptions about groups with which they have little contact or which they
have little knowledge
Gives them little motivation to be accurate in their assumptions, expectation, and
generalizations
oContact hypothesis proposes that increasing exposure to members of various gropus can increase
positive evaluations of the outgroup and decrease prejudice and stereotyping
oGordon Allport, 1954
Effect of contact will depend upon the kind of association that occurs, and on the kinds of
person who are involved
Important to understand the characteristics of the situation:
Status of the members
Role of the contact
Personality of the interactants
Situations in which the contact takes place
For positive Intergroup contact to occur:
Equal status members
Common goals
Intergroup cooperation
Support of legitimate authority (government etc.)
oContact hypothesis has fallen out of favour due to:
Confusion in that some researchers have confused factors that are essential with those that
are merely facilitative in Intergroup contact, this does not speak to how this change in
attitudes occurs in the contact situation
Research tends to focus on when and why contact will result in positive Intergroup attitudes,
but it does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in the contact situation
Does not specify how positive feelings toward an outgroup member in the contact situation
can generalize to ones feelings for the whole outgroup
oPettigrew’s Reformulated Contact Theory
Suggests that:
Researcher need to be aware that individuals bring their own Intergroup experiences
and biases and their own personality characteristics to the contact situation
Situation must have all 4 Allport conditions as well as Pettigrew additional condition:
oPotential to become friends with outgroup members
Steps involved in the Reformulated contact Theory
Initial contact situation
oBegin to see each other in terms of their personalities and characteristics
rather than their group membership
Decategorization
oGroups get together through interacting with outgroup individuals
Individuating members occurs and one realizes that they are unique persons and have
varying opinions, similar to the variability that occurs in one’s own ingroup
oOutgroup category is now useless as a heuristic
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 9 PSYC12 11/04/2011
Recategorization
oGroup members being to think of the outgroup members as representative of
the outgroup in general, thereby changing the negative views they had
oEncourages a breakdown of “us vs. “we” , and promotes a broaderwe”
-The superordinate goal
oRealistic Conflict Theory
Asserts that when 2 groups compete for scarce resources, prejudice and stereotypes between
the 2 groups will result
Suggests that when groups are in conflict they think of the outgroup in stereotyped ways,
and they begin to feel hostility toward the outgroup
oRobber’s cave study
2 groups of boy at a summer camp compete for a scarce resource
Prejudice erupted between the groups
Reduced competition and introduced a superordinate goal
Goal in which both groups needed to cooperate to help each other in order to solve
the problem
Results showed that prejudice and outgroup hostility can be caused by competition, but can
be greatly reduced via Intergroup cooperation on a superordinate goal
oCommon Ingroup identity
Intergroup can be reduced by breaking down the salience of the groups’ category
membership and by getting the groups to reconceptualize themselves as members of one
larger group
Works through Decategorization and Recategorization
-Confrontation Technique
oCognitive Dissonance theory
When people experience inconsistencies between their thoughts and behaviours, they will
feel negative arousal. This will motivate them to choose the easiest factor to change
(Attitude) to bring it in line with their behaviour and thereby reducing the negative arousal.
oAltemeyer, 1994
Used the confrontation procedure with individuals high in RWA
RWA individuals are characterized by;
High degree of submission
Aggression
Conventionalism / Traditionalism
Students were asked to complete a scale measuring RWA, were then showed their ranking
(confrontation)
Were then assessed on their attitudes toward minorities and minority related social issues
Results showed that their attitudes did not change as a result of the confrontation
technique in High RWA when compared with those were not confronted
-Jigsaw classroom
oAronson, Blaney , 1978
Typical classroom environment in US is based on competition between individuals students
for the attention and praise of the teacher
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9 PSYC12 11042011 Reducing prejudice - The Contact Hypothesis o People tend to make assumptions about groups with which they have little contact or which they have little knowledge Gives them little motivation to be accurate in their assumptions, expectation, and generalizations o Contact hypothesis proposes that increasing exposure to members of various gropus can increase positive evaluations of the outgroup and decrease prejudice and stereotyping o Gordon Allport, 1954 Effect of contact will depend upon the kind of association that occurs, and on the kinds of person who are involved Important to understand the characteristics of the situation: Status of the members Role of the contact Personality of the interactants Situations in which the contact takes place For positive Intergroup contact to occur: Equal status members Common goals Intergroup cooperation Support of legitimate authority (government etc.) o Contact hypothesis has fallen out of favour due to: Confusion in that some researchers have confused factors that are essential with those that are merely facilitative in Intergroup contact, this does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in the contact situation Research tends to focus on when and why contact will result in positive Intergroup attitudes, but it does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in the contact situation Does not specify how positive feelings toward an outgroup member in the contact situation can generalize to ones feelings for the whole outgroup o Pettigrews Reformulated Contact Theory Suggests that: Researcher need to be aware that individuals bring their own Intergroup experiences and biases and their own personality characteristics to the contact situation Situation must have all 4 Allport conditions as well as Pettigrew additional condition: o Potential to become friends with outgroup members Steps involved in the Reformulated contact Theory Initial contact situation o Begin to see each other in terms of their personalities and characteristics rather than their group membership Decategorization o Groups get together through interacting with outgroup individuals Individuating members occurs and one realizes that they are unique persons and have varying opinions, similar to the variability that occurs in ones own ingroup o Outgroup category is now useless as a heuristic www.notesolution.com
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