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Lecture

Chapter 8

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 8 PSYC12 11/04/2011
Sexism
-Negative attitudes and behaviour toward someone on the basis of their gender
-Gender stereotypes
oWomen are seen as polite, gentle , nurturing etc.
Usually viewed as primarily concerned with fostering relationships with others, nurturing,
and deference
oDeaux and Lewis, 1984
Participants were given information about the gender of a target individual, as well as role
behaviour or trait information, wand were asked to indicate likelihood target person had
specific gender characteristics
Results showed that gender stereotype component information can outweigh the influence of
gender in evaluations in target
Perceiver will initially draw on gender stereotype information in their inferences
about the target, once they gain more specific information the target will be viewed
according to this
-Measurement of Gender stereotypes
oBipolar assumption
Notion that men and women are diametrically opposite
States that a person has characteristics that are associated with either males or females but
not both
oDualistic view
People have both:
Agentic traits
oTraditionally associated with males, traits that indicate task orientation,
assertiveness, and a striving for achievement
Communal traits
oExpressive traits, traditionally associated with women
ATWS
Attitudes toward women scale
Measures attitudes toward equal rights and roles and privileges form women
Eagly and Mladinic, 1989
oEvaluative content of questionnaire conducted should correlate highly with
scores on the ATWS of participants
oResults supported the hypothesis
Past research using the ATWS had suggested that people have negative views of
women, when in fact what ws happening was that they had negative views of the idea
of male – female equality in society
-Origin of Gender stereotypes
oReligion
Many religions have taught that women are different from, inferior to, and subservient to
men
oSocial Learning
Social Learning theory
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 8 PSYC12 11/04/2011
Children learn the expectations, goals, interest, abilities and other aspects associated
with their gender
Gender is shaped by their environment, mainly by their parents
oRewarding gender appropriate behaviours and punishing or discouraging
supposedly gender inappropriate behaviours
Influence of the parent in shaping the child’s gender identity is substantial and lasting
Research suggests that parents do not really differentiate between boys and girls in
the thing they teach
oParents are egalitarian in their socialization and stereotypic gender roles are
acquired via other socialization agents (friends etc.)
oCultural Institutions
Attitudes about gender are influenced by continual exposure to gender relevant information
contained in television shows and commercials
Advertisements influence gender attitudes through:
Normative
oOccurs when we wish to hold a particular attitude in order to be liked by
others
Informational
oOccurs when we wish to be correct in our attitudes
Goffman (1979)
Analysis of print advertisements
oMen were almost always pictures in an act of doin something, whereas
women were often pictured as peripheral to the action, looking on tot what
the man was doing
oWomen are featured more in poses that draw attention to their bodies
oMen tend to be placed higher in the ad relative to women, conveying greater
stature or importance
Face – ism
Greater facial prominence of depictions of men in the media versus women, and
greater emphasis on the whole body of women
Media does not just reflect popular cultural stereotypes about gender, it perpetuates them and
creates new gender stereotypes that negatively affect women’s self concepts and the say
society views women
Gender stereotyping activation and endorsement can be disrupted and eliminated in women
by exposing the individual to women who occupy leadership positions
oEvolution versus Social Roles
Evolutionary Psychology
Suggests that the differences between males and females in terms of personality /
characteristics are real and exist because evolutionary processes of inclusive fitness
favoured certain behaviour for men and different behaviour for women
Social Roles theory
Gender differences that are present today come from the different social roles that
men and women perform in society
oThrough a combination of biological and social factors, a division of labor
between the sexes has emerged over time
oPeople behave in ways that fit the roles they play
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 PSYC12 11042011 Sexism - Negative attitudes and behaviour toward someone on the basis of their gender - Gender stereotypes o Women are seen as polite, gentle , nurturing etc. Usually viewed as primarily concerned with fostering relationships with others, nurturing, and deference o Deaux and Lewis, 1984 Participants were given information about the gender of a target individual, as well as role behaviour or trait information, wand were asked to indicate likelihood target person had specific gender characteristics Results showed that gender stereotype component information can outweigh the influence of gender in evaluations in target Perceiver will initially draw on gender stereotype information in their inferences about the target, once they gain more specific information the target will be viewed according to this - Measurement of Gender stereotypes o Bipolar assumption Notion that men and women are diametrically opposite States that a person has characteristics that are associated with either males or females but not both o Dualistic view People have both: Agentic traits o Traditionally associated with males, traits that indicate task orientation, assertiveness, and a striving for achievement Communal traits o Expressive traits, traditionally associated with women ATWS Attitudes toward women scale Measures attitudes toward equal rights and roles and privileges form women Eagly and Mladinic, 1989 o Evaluative content of questionnaire conducted should correlate highly with scores on the ATWS of participants o Results supported the hypothesis Past research using the ATWS had suggested that people have negative views of women, when in fact what ws happening was that they had negative views of the idea of male female equality in society - Origin of Gender stereotypes o Religion Many religions have taught that women are different from, inferior to, and subservient to men o Social Learning Social Learning theory www.notesolution.com
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