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Lecture 5

PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: European Canadian, Cognitive Dissonance

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Sisi Tran

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Lecture notes PSYC14
Lecture 05. Self and Motivation
There are differences between people who state personal characteristics and roles
& memberships
o In undergrad you're trying to figure out your life path and who you are
You're exposed to more ideas at that point in life
One research study explored the 20-statements test among Kenyans and
Some countries show emphasis on personal characteristics, while others
emphasize roles & memberships
o Personal Characteristics: Americans, Australians, British, Swedish,
o Roles and Memberships: Kenyans, Cook Islanders, Malaysians, Chinese,
Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Indians, Japanese, Koreans
o Roles and memberships is about group harmony, not about individual
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Lecture notes PSYC14
First box
o In group is permeable
Meaning you could choose the people you want in your group
Second box
o All the circles are dotted lines your identity is permeable, your role is
dependable on the situation
Who you are or your identity depends on the roles you play
The way you are with your mother or friend is not the same way
you’ll be with an acquaintance
o Your in group is something you don’t really have a choice in, not
Self-Awareness - Subjective vs. Objective Self-Awareness
Subjective self awareness
o Has to do with you being the subject
Subjective view
Evaluating other people through your eyes
Looking at the world and others through your perspective
o Concern is on others
Objective self awareness
o You become the object of evaluation
o Concern is yourself
o How others would be looking at you
Study with Japanese and American students
o Evaluated actual-ideal self discrepancies
o Either in front of a mirror or not
Americans generally thought highly of
o In the mirror they were more aware of
themselves and were more critical
The Japanese were highly critical of themselves
regardless of the mirror condition
When the discrepancy is large it means you're more critical
Cognitive Dissonance Theory:
o State of tension occurs when an individual observes himself or herself
behaving inconsistently with his/her attitudes
Attitude: I’m a strict vegetarian who believes in animals’ rights.
Behaviour: I see a stylish leather jacket, and I just have to buy it.
When dissonance is experienced, I can relieve that tension by
o Changing my behaviour
o Changing my attitude
o Rationalizing the inconsistency or minimizing its importance
Ex. with seeing a stylish leather jacket
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