PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Collectivism, Infant Mortality, Ethnocentrism

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8 Apr 2017
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PSYC14 – Lecture 8 – Relationships, Mental Health, and Well-Being – March 24, 2017
Slide 2:
Belonging: People are motivated to affiliate and bond with each other. Understanding: to belong, people
are motivated to create an accurate-enough shared social understanding. In collectivistic countries, they
don’t care for individuals but more for relationships. Efficacy: What are we trying to be capable and
competent with? We want to have a sense of control on our outcomes but it’s more control over
ourselves. Are we able to be capable, efficient, and competent in of ourselves? Collectivistic societies
focus on navigating their social environments. Individual control vs harmony control. Influencing other
people or adjusting to other people to ease the tension. Self-enhancement: Not necessarily
ethnocentric. In western countries, it’s about enhancing ourselves and portraying ourselves in a certain
way. Socially worthy. In a collectivistic country, they have a special sympathy for themselves where they
aren’t critical of themselves. Difference between being humble and self-depreciating. They can see their
own limitations and weaknesses and accept them. Trust: In western societies, we tend to have positive
expectations about others. We assume people do the right thing. Example: trusting another person and
investing time as their new bff. In collectivistic cultures, social networks are so paramount that this
operates more narrowly. The trust is not there. Behaviour can be adjusted and shouldn’t be taken at
face value. Behaviour can change in each situation.
Slide 3:
Social Obligation: The family network is so tight that you can’t get out of it and will be held responsible
to it.
Slide 4:
We like to interact with the people we hang out with more because of the familiarity. We can admire
their skill or quality and start to emulate it. It’s a good feeling to have someone like you.
Slide 5:
Few questions about love and marriage: If a man or woman had all the qualities you desired, would you
marry this person if you were not in love with him/her?
Love: chemistry is important even if they’re ideal, learn to love them, there are a lot of things above and
beyond chemistry, love can fade but qualities can change, maybe not as ideal as you thought, etc.
Marriage: if love has faded, what now? They have to consider other things like family house, kids, how
much is being sacrificed? How much is too much to sacrifice? Differs culturally.
Example: Harry and Sally (love is a choice; he chose her and has to continue to choose her and sustain
her) vs Chinese couple (love is a privilege; learned to love each other; their love is not paramount)
What about arranged marriages? This concept is strange to individualistic people. Individualistic people
choose a person they love and have chemistry with.
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Slide 6:
In collectivistic cultures, marriage isn’t regarded as a union of two people but a union of two families.
This makes the network much larger. You learn to love the person. It becomes easier after the parents
approve everything. Since it is sanctioned, there will be no conflicts because of who you marry.
Individualistic people may not care about other people’s support because they’re with the love of their
life.
Slide 7:
How does love manifest in arranged vs free choice marriages? In the graph, arranged marriages seem to
last longer. In love marriages, it’s high at first (honeymoon phase) but then it goes down. Infatuation in
love marriages won’t sustain them. In arranged marriages, they’re starting to get to know each other
and religion, class, etc can have an effect. Learn to love them and find qualities to focus on. If they
followed up, would the arranged marriages look like the love marriages? It could be a time factor. Make
the best of this marriage. If you’re around them a lot, you can learn to love them.
In arranged marriages, it’s a family obligation, you learn to love them. In Love marriages, you doubt
yourself because you have options, kids affect marriage (stress), biased perception until living together
and you have to negotiate, values, autonomy and freedom since they’re part of individualistic cultures.
Slide 8:
What is well being? The state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy. Most people in life are happy.
They convinced themselves to be happy or pursued their goals to be satisfied or they measure
happiness with success. We get a normal distribution for most things assessed in psychology. It’s not the
case for happiness. Why is it adaptive for us to be happy all the time? They could have a front or if
they’re not happy, then they’re doing something wrong or something is wrong in their life. If you’re
happy, you’re more likely to get out of your comfort zone and engage in the world. People living in
severe dispositions can have lower well-being and be less happy.
Slide 9:
Darker colours are the happiest nations while the lighter colours are less happy. Lowest rank: state of
corruption, lack of trust for their people, war, etc. If the country is more equal, free, less corrupt,
wealthy, the happier it tends to be.
Video: Does Denmark live up to its title as the happiest nation? no state of envy.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9s8-swxfN6E
Slide 10:
Why is SES associated with good health outcomes? Can still find the same SES health outcomes for each
proposal under Why? Section. They still experience the same problems others do. When you can’t meet
basic needs, there is stress on life. With more money, we may have greater access to health benefits.
Stress weakens the immune system. A big stressor in people’s lives is a lack of control. It results in a
higher risk of heart disease, increased likelihood of illness, increased mortality rates, etc. We can also
experience subjective SES. Not exactly being poor but feeling poor.
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