PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Evolutionism, Relativism

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5 Jul 2018
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● “Iwantedtosharemythoughtswithyoufrom
atotallydifferentangle,asaneducator
concernedwiththedevelopmentalstagesof
childhoodandyoungadulthood.Asaformer
preschoolteacher...itishardformetogive
credencetoaclaimthatthereissomething
objectionably“appropriative”aboutablonde
hairedchild’swantingtobeMulanforaday.
Pretendplayisthefoundationofmost
cognitivetasks,anditseemstomethatwe
wanttobeinthebusinessofencouraging
theexerciseofimagination,notconstraining
it.Iwonder,andIamnottryingtobe
provocative:Istherenoroomanymorefora
childoryoungpersontobealittlebit
obnoxious…alittlebitinappropriateor
provocativeor,yes,offensive?American
universitieswereonceasafespacenotonly
formaturationbutalsoforacertain
regressive,oreventransgressive,
experience;increasingly,itseems,theyhave
becomeplacesofcensureandprohibition.
Nicholassays,ifyoudon’tlikeacostume
someoneiswearing,lookaway,ortellthem
youareoffended.Talktoeachother.Free
speechandtheabilitytotolerateoffenceare
thehallmarksofafreeandopensociety.”
○ Yaleprofessors’opinionsafterthey
gotsaltythattheDeansentoutan
emailtopplnottowearculturally
offensivecostumesforHalloween
● SatiricalartistsdrawingprophetMuhammed
(s.a.v.)andAllah,whichisprohibitedinIslam
○ They'resayingit’sagainsttheir
freedomtoexpressandshit(wtflol)
Approachestomorality
● Universalism:
○ Culturalvariabilityinmoralityexists
onlysuperficially
○ Commonunderlyingstructure
wherebythedifferencesquickly
disappearuponcloserinspection
● Relativism:
○ Culturalvariabilityisevidenceof
genuinedifferentpsychological
processes
○ Peoplefromthiscultureareslowto
passjudgmentonothers(you
HAVEtoconsiderthecultural
context)
● Evolutionism:
○ Asortofmixtureoftheabovetwo
○ Variabilityasexistingatdifferent
stages(re:MullerLyerIllusion)
Schwederandcolleagues(1997)
● EthicofAutonomy
○ Emphasizesindividualfreedomand
rights
● EthicofCommunity
○ Emphasizesdutiestoconformto
communityrolesandexpectations
● EthicofDivinity
○ Emphasizesthesanctityof
perceived“naturalorder”
The“CAD”hypothesis
● Responsestotheethicsabove
● Contempt=communityviolations
● Anger=autonomyviolations
Disgust=divinity/purity
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