PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cultural Psychology, Operationalization, Individualism

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Published on 6 Feb 2019
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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
PSYC14 Lecture 4: Methods in Cultural Psychology
Before beginning research Develop knowledge about cultures of interest
o Read ethnographies, texts, qualitative reports
o Collaborate with others from different cultures
o Talk to anthropologists who are experts in the culture of interest
o Talk with people
o Ask questions
o Learn firsthand
Natural observation
Psychologists pride themselves on objectivity
o Approach based in concerns about bias from being too close to the groups of interest
o Like being on the outside
In contrast, anthropologists pride themselves on getting highly invested and involved
o Approach based in truly experiencing culture
o Like being an “insider”
Got to find a balance between being an insider and an outsider when conducting a cross-cultural
psychology study
Your cultural norms may sound normal until you’re confronted by someone of a different
culture who doesn’t understand those norms
COSI Why is cultural psychology different from other disciplines in
o Causation
o Operationalization
o Sampling
o Interpretation?
Causation
o What is the cultural dimension driving my differences?
o “Why is there so much formality in one culture and not so much in the other?”
o Individualism (dependent) vs. collectivism (interdependent)
o Have to consider other dimensions along with individualism vs. collectivism
Approach vs. avoidance motivations
Approaching success vs. avoiding failure
Working towards innovation vs. being concerned about being outland-
ish
Tightness vs. looseness
Monochronic vs. polychronic time
Monochronic time Time is thought of as being linear, people do one
thing at a time and lateness and interruptions are not tolerated
Polychronic time Time is seen as cyclical, punctuality is unimportant
and interruptions are acceptable
Linear vs. contextual thinking
Linear Remove “noise”
Contextual “Noise” is valuable
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Document Summary

Interpretation: causation, what is the cultural dimension driving my differences, why is there so much formality in one culture and not so much in the other? . Linear remove noise : contextual noise is valuable. Individual differences: example: personality differences, social-cognitive approach, priming people to think of their group/family and themselves in a certain way determines individualistic vs. collectivistic mentality, situation-structure approach, aka. Linguistic translation: back-translation, to ensure coherence, response biases, social desirability, confirmation bias, moderacy bias, quantifiers, reference group effects, deprivation effects, what are the cost-benefit trade-offs of surveys vs. experiments, surveys. Can"t generalize chinese people to asians: bicultural sampling, being bicultural means that you can frame switch, student sampling. International students at uoft tend to be elite can"t use these people to generalize their culture. Out in the world: operationalization, translations, surveys, experiments, field studies, qualitative work, sampling, generalizability.

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