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PSYC14H3 (200)
Sisi Tran (100)
Lecture 5

PSYC14H3 Lecture 5: Self and Motivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Lecture
5

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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
PSYC14 Lecture 5: Self and Motivation
Process of self-reflection improves self-awareness
Ma & Schoeneman (1997) One
research study explored the 20-
statements test among Kenyans
and Americans
o Emphasis on personal
characteristics
Americans
Australians
British
Swedish
Canadians
o Roles and memberships
Kenyans
Cook Islanders
Malaysians
Chinese
Native Americans
Puerto Ricans
Indians
Japanese
Koreans
o Interestingly, the Nairobi undergrads wrote more self-description statements with an
emphasis on personal characteristics
Workers in Nairobi emphasized more roles and memberships
Younger generations may be adopting more individualistic descriptions due to
mass media and social networking sites
Independent view of self
o Ingroup is composed of people
we’re closest to
o Strangers don’t fall in the ingroup
o Mother and brother are the closest
o Solid vs. dash line
Solid line may represent
stability in self-identity
Dash line represents
transience, subject to
change The bonds in the
ingroup may be just
voluntary and temporary
o X’s found in each individual

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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
Amount of X’s and their size represent characteristics and how important they
are to the individual
Interdependent view of self
o Overlap with those who you’re closest
with
o Solid vs. dash lines
Identity flexes different points in
life
People’s traits are much more
permeable
Once you’re in the ingroup,
you’re in; once you’re out,
you’re out Hard to get in this
ingroup
o Bigger X’s
Means identity is more based on
relationships with others
Subjective vs. objective self-awareness
Heine, Takemoto, Moskalenko, & Lasaleta (2007) Japanese and American students
o Evaluated actual-ideal self discrepancies
o Either in front of a mirror or not
o Americans generally think highly of themselves
Perceiving few discrepancies between their ideal self and their actual self
In the mirror condition, when they were more aware of themselves (as an
object), they become much more critical
o Japanese were highly critical of themselves, regardless of the mirror condition
Cognitive dissonance theory: State of tension/discomfort/unease when an individual observes
himself or herself behaving inconsistently with his/her attitudes
o Example:
Attitude: “I’m a strict vegetarian who believes in animals’ rights”
Behaviour: “I see a stylish leather jacket, and I just have to buy it”
o When dissonance is experienced, I can relieve that tension by
Changing my behaviour
Changing my attitude
Rationalizing the inconsistency or minimizing its importance
o People will go to great lengths to justify their dissonance and do something about it
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