PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Ingroups And Outgroups, Cognitive Dissonance, Wrinkle
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LECTURE 5: Self and Motivation
• One research study explored the 20-statements test among
Kenyans and Americans
• Emphasis on Personal Characteristics: American, Australians,
British, Swedish, Canadians
• Emphasis on Roles and Memberships: Kenyans, Cook Islanders,
Malaysians, Chinese, Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Indians,
• Interestingly, the Nairobi undergrads wrote more description with personal characteristic
whereas in Worker in Nairobi emphasized more roles and membership
o In undergrad, they are getting formal education, trying to figure out their life and who they
• Independent View of Self
o More X within individual
▪ Much more focused and think about themselves
o No overlap → separate entity
o Acquaintance is neither a stranger or friend
o Solid line represent stability in identity
▪ Ex: I am kind whether 2 years or 3 years. It is part of my trait and stable and does
o Dash line represent transience, group can change, a lot of movement and is flexible
• Interdependent View of Self
o Overlap with other → identity
o Solid line → Ingroup is NOT transient. Ingroup is always your ingroup so one will try to
navigate even when you are offended
o If stranger finds a way to merge through the solid, the person can become part of your
o Individual identity flexes depending on situation (i.e. I’m kind to my friend but to my
acquaintance I’m less kind)
o Everybody has dotted line→ which means they behave based on situation
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• Subjective vs. Objective Self Awareness
• Study with Japanese and American students
o Evaluated actual ideal self-discrepancies
o Either in front of a mirror or not
o American generally thought highly of themselves, perceiving few
discrepancies between their ideal self and their actual self.
▪ In mirror condition, when they were more aware of
themselves (as an object) they become much more critical
• Americans are dominantly SUBJECTIVE self-
o Evaluate everyone else
o Looking at the world through your own
o But when given a mirror, they are aware that
they become the object of evaluation
▪ Japanese participants were highly critical of themselves, regardless of the mirror
• Whether they were looking at the mirror or not, they were very aware of
being object evaluation.
• Japanese sustain OBJECTIVE self-awareness
o You become the object of evaluation
o How others would be looking at you
• Cognitive Dissonance Theory: State of tension occurs when an individual observes himself or herself
behaving inconsistently with his/her attitudes.
▪ Attitude: I’m a strict vegetarian who believes in animals’ rights.
▪ Behavior: I see a stylish leather jacket, and I just have to buy it
o When dissonance is experienced, I can relieve that tension by
▪ Changing my behavior (i.e., don’t buy the jacket b/c its against my values)
▪ Changing my attitude (i.e. I no longer believe in animal rights)
▪ Rationalizing the inconsistency or minimizing its importance (i.e. the animal already
died, so we want to use all resource and buy it)
• Post-Decisional Dissonance
o A research study:
▪ Japanese and European Canadians
▪ Instructed to rank order menu items for themselves or for close family member
▪ Given a choice between two items.
▪ Selected one of the two items.
▪ Subsequently re-evaluated all menu items
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