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Lecture 7

PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Ingroups And Outgroups, Individualism, Standard Deviation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Lecture
7

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LECTURE 5: Self and Motivation
Self-Descriptions
One research study explored the 20-statements test among
Kenyans and Americans
Emphasis on Personal Characteristics: American, Australians,
British, Swedish, Canadians
Emphasis on Roles and Memberships: Kenyans, Cook Islanders,
Malaysians, Chinese, Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Indians,
Japanese, Koreans
Interestingly, the Nairobi undergrads wrote more description with personal characteristic
whereas in Worker in Nairobi emphasized more roles and membership
o In undergrad, they are getting formal education, trying to figure out their life and who they
are
Independent View of Self
o More X within individual
Much more focused and think about themselves
o No overlap separate entity
o Acquaintance is neither a stranger or friend
o Solid line represent stability in identity
Ex: I am kind whether 2 years or 3 years. It is part of my trait and stable and does
not change.
o Dash line represent transience, group can change, a lot of movement and is flexible
Interdependent View of Self
o Overlap with other identity
o Solid line Ingroup is NOT transient. Ingroup is always your ingroup so one will try to
navigate even when you are offended
o If stranger finds a way to merge through the solid, the person can become part of your
ingroup
o Individual identity flexes depending on situation (i.e. I’m kind to my friend but to my
acquaintance I’m less kind)
o Everybody has dotted line which means they behave based on situation

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Self-Awareness
Subjective vs. Objective Self Awareness
Study with Japanese and American students
o Evaluated actual ideal self-discrepancies
o Either in front of a mirror or not
o American generally thought highly of themselves, perceiving few
discrepancies between their ideal self and their actual self.
In mirror condition, when they were more aware of
themselves (as an object) they become much more critical
Americans are dominantly SUBJECTIVE self-
awareness
o Evaluate everyone else
o Looking at the world through your own
perspective
o But when given a mirror, they are aware that
they become the object of evaluation
Japanese participants were highly critical of themselves, regardless of the mirror
condition
Whether they were looking at the mirror or not, they were very aware of
being object evaluation.
Japanese sustain OBJECTIVE self-awareness
o You become the object of evaluation
o How others would be looking at you
Self-Consistency
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: State of tension occurs when an individual observes himself or herself
behaving inconsistently with his/her attitudes.
o Example
Attitude: I’m a strict vegetarian who believes in animals’ rights.
Behavior: I see a stylish leather jacket, and I just have to buy it
o When dissonance is experienced, I can relieve that tension by
Changing my behavior (i.e., don’t buy the jacket b/c its against my values)
Changing my attitude (i.e. I no longer believe in animal rights)
Rationalizing the inconsistency or minimizing its importance (i.e. the animal already
died, so we want to use all resource and buy it)
Post-Decisional Dissonance
o A research study:
Japanese and European Canadians
Instructed to rank order menu items for themselves or for close family member
Given a choice between two items.
Selected one of the two items.
Subsequently re-evaluated all menu items

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Result
European Canadian
o Showed much more favorable evaluation of their close items,
compared other items
Just b/c you chose one, you change your attitude to be
consistent with behavior
o Were unaffected by making a choice for their friends
Friend isn’t important to you as you are
Japanese
o Did not show any difference in their evaluations, even after
selecting the menu items… No dissonance
o When Japanese folks selected the menu item for their friends, they
showed more dissonance… rating the item much higher than
before.
Friend is more important themselves. They need to be
consistent for that friend.
Kitayama & Markus’ Model of Cultural Modes
Cultural Patterns of Social Relations
“Social relations governed by instrumental goals of separated selves”
o We have a goal, and everything in the path is the means to the end
o Using people to get to your goals
o Example: Networking; you connect with a lot of people and use them to achieve your
goals
“Social relations provide the context for definitions of connected selves”
o Must be cognizant of others’ expectation, desire, needs
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