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Lecture 8

PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Symmetry In Biology, Ingroups And Outgroups, Relative Deprivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Lecture
8

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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
PSYC14 Lecture 8: Relationships, Well-Being, and Mental Health
Why do we affiliate? Core social motives
o Belonging
Rejection is physically painful
o Understanding
Confirmation and validation of what’s happening in the world
o Efficacy
Goal achievement (our own and group’s)
o Enhancement
Enhancing perceptions of ourselves and of our groups
o Trust
Trust is required for group efficacy
When do we affiliate?
o Social Support
Provision of warmth, supportiveness or instrumental care
o Social Exchange
Reciprocal exchange of goods and services
o Social Obligation
Expectations of responsibility to ingroup members (i.e., family, friends, social
network members)
Who do we affiliate with? We like people who are
o Close to us in proximity
o Familiar to us
o Similar to us
Look, feel, think more like us
o Physically attractive
o Have some admired skill/quality
Inspired to model person’s behaviour
o Like us
Who are we attracted to? Indicators of health
o Clear complexion
No blotches or blemishes
o Bilateral symmetry
Face and body
o “Average” facial features
People are attracted to what is normative
Deviance is a sign of lack of health
How do we make ourselves attractive?
o How we enhance our appearance varies across cultures
Differences in views on marriage
o “Love is a choice Western movies
o “Love is a privilege” East Asian movies
An arranged marriage is a novel concept to Westerners

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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
o Individualistic assumptions
A person will only love someone that they’ve chosen
Love is a choice, based on a unique connection
A marriage with no love is bound to be miserable
In collectivistic cultures, marriage is not regarded as a union of 2 individuals, rather it is a union
of 2 families
o Collectivistic Assumptions:
Love is assumed to grow out of marriage
Love is sanctioned only between certain partners
Sanctioned love can act as an important social glue
o It is seen as important for cementing family liaisons, building new economic ties, and
maintaining the influence of extended network
Gupta & Singh (1982)
o Both men and women who have
entered a love marriage tend to
show drastic drops in love over
time (After around 2-5 years of
marriage)
o Men in arranged marriages show
a dramatic increase in love as
time passes
Females show an increase
as well, but not to the
same extent
o In arranged marriage, the partners are learning to love each other
Diener & Diener (1996) Culture and
happiness/subjective well-being
o “Most people are happy.”
o A disposition toward pleasant
affect facilitates exploratory
behavior, supporting
evolutionary advantages
o Removing yourself from what is
good then coming back to it
enhances one’s sense of
happiness/subjective well-being
o However, difficulty meeting basic
needs or other circumstances (Ex.
Lack of respect) may decrease
well-being
Happiest nations in the world
o Denmark
o Switzerland
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PSYC14: Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Clara Rebello
o Iceland
o Norway
o Finland
o Canada
o Netherlands
o New Zealand
o Australia
o Sweden
o USA
Least happiest nations in
the world
o India
o Syria
o Burundi
Nations’ happiness most
closely tied to
o Health
Healthcare
o Wealth
Developed vs. developing countries
o Social support
No corporate/rat race
o Freedom
o Absence of corruption
o Equality
Gender equality
Wealth equality
SES has consistently shown a very strong relation with health outcomes
o False explanations
More money = greater access to health benefits
People in lower SES have more hazardous jobs
Poorer people more likely to have unhealthy habits
o Stress weakens the immune system
o Stress leads people to engage in compromising behaviours
Two major stressors that impact health outcomes
o Lack of control
Higher risk of heart disease
Increased likelihood of illness
Increased mortality rates Dying earlier
o Subjective SES
Feeling poor can matter just as much as actually being poor
Relative deprivation: Lack of resources to sustain the diet, lifestyle, activities,
and amenities that an individual or group are accustomed to or that are widely
encouraged or approved in the society to which they belong
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