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Lecture 3

PSYC14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ethnocentrism, Biar, Enculturation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Lecture
3

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PSYC14 Lecture 3 Development and Socialization
Social Development
Eriksons stages of psychosocial development Eric Erikson based development stages in 8
specific stages. Highlighted that in each stage the individual faces a task/subconscious struggle where
they have to come out with more positives than negatives
Common themes its all or nothing with this man its either good or bad, no middle ground. It also
only focus on the individual, only me me me. Values independent culture, anything short of
independent culture, anything short of that is bad which makes it ethnocentric and bias
Ego Crisis
Age
Positive
Outcome
Notes
Basic trust vs
mistrust
0-1
Hope
Can trust the care giver or not. Learn that people
are reliable or not
Autonomy vs
shame/doubt
2-3
Will
Greater ability to function. May feel shame if
parent has to do tasks; we value autonomy,
comes from western perspective westerners
think intervening in kids life is strict and rigid
but in Chinese culture being intrusive means
you’re sensitive and there for your kid
Initiative vs guilt
3-5
Purpose
Bigger plans (play in your room with cars) can
be even more elaborate. May be guilty if
separated if showing too much autonomy
Industry vs
inferiority
5-12
Competence
Big range in age. Gaining skills in schools, can
be really good or not good in school can make
you feel inferior
Ego identity vs role
confusion
Adolescence
Fidelity
Develop more of an identity trying different
things to find out who they are, got phase, drama
phase, hipster phase, etc. being a teenager as the
idea that’s when kid rebels and test authority;
lots of focus on ego and finding their identity.
This is not seen in most cultures, they are coming
into their own because they know their place and
understand what is the right thing, what is
honorable
Intimacy vs isolation
Young adult
Love
Making friends, getting into relationships
Generativity vs
stagnation
Adulthood
Care
Mid life crisis, feel like you arent doing what
you wanted; stagnation
Ego integrity vs
despair
Maturity
Wisdom
End of life may reflect on your life, can have lots
of accomplishments or regrets

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Cognitive Development
Piagets Stages of cognitive development
Stage
Description
Age range
Sensorimotor
development
An infant processes from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the
beginning of symbolic thought. The infant constructs an understanding
of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical action.
Infant constructs an understanding of world by coordinating sensory
experiences with physical action. Navigating sensory and motor
abilities, lots of observing and feeling
Birth
2yrs
Pre-
operational
Child begins to represent the world with words and images; these words
and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the
connection of sensory info and physical action. Developing vocab, 2-7
are super creative, can reflect on objects can think of past and future
2 7yrs
Concrete
operational
The child can now reason logically about tangible objects and concrete
events. Have more sophisticated reasoning more logical reasoning, can
think of reversibility (I can do this and can undo it with these steps’)
7 11yrs
Formal
operational
The adolescent reasons in more abstract ways; metacognition about
hypothetical. Since thinking of hypotheticals can so think of scientific
reasoning; metacognition is thinking about thinking. Many cultures
metacognition has no place in their culture, but here we think if we
don’t have metacognition its not right. This has a lot to do with formal
education and schooling
11 15yrs
Moral Development
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Stage 1
Judgements about what is right and wrong are based on fear of
punishment ‘I don’t wanna do this because I don’t wanna get in
trouble
Stage 2
Moral conduct produces pleasure, whereas immoral conduct results
in unwanted consequences. Like stage 1 but has to do with pleasure
if I do this people will like me still about rewards and
punishments
Stage 3
Behavior is good if it is approved by significant others. If others say
its good then its good. Here Chinese emphasize this, if it is good for
others then it is good, rest don’t matter to them, only if it is
approved by others
Stage 4
Existing laws determine what is moral and immoral, others also
determine laws, laws determine what’s moral and immoral.
American focus on this and ignore the 1st one, for Americans laws
are a means to an end
Stage 5
Moral behavior is based on individuals rights and underlying social
circumstances. Circumstances over what is script
Stage 6
Moral conduct is regulated by universal ethical principles that may
rise above government and laws. Ex family is starving and dying so
you’ll be more inclined to steal to provide for them. Yes it’s a law
but in the circumstances is this moral or immoral?
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