Lecture 02

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29 May 2011
PSYC18 – Lecture 02
Midterm is on June 22nd
Plato (429 – 347 BCE)
He though there are 3 parts to the soul: sensible vs. intelligible distinction is maintained
oReason abstract thinking, cognition
is located in head & is also imprisoned there since the head is not part of the body
Its function is to think especially about moral treatment this is ideal and pure (not
part of body) its immortal
oPassion - its function is motivation, urging us to do things
Its the source of complex emotions & involved in courage (urging to do things)
Located in the digestive system
oAppetitemost basic part of our soul
Is immoral involved w/ affection & sensuality (pleasure)
Located in the belly urge sex, hedonism, hunger etc.
He thought we are born w/ a knowledge base as everyone else Theory of Form
oThis knowledge is genuine & called Episteme - its abstract ideas that doesnt change & is
Is the reason part of soul that comes to next life - doesnt die w/ the body
Since we are born w/ all the knowledge we need – we just need education to rekindle that already
existing knowledge ( about reasoning, abstract thinking)
oAll we have to is unlock & utilize this inbuilt knowledge
oThus, Trying to gather info about world from experience is wrong this knowledge is
known as Doxa Info – from sensory
This info gives poor copy of genuine knowledge your born w/ & is imperfect thus,
oTell us to override the body & only rely on abstract reasoning IGNORE EMOTIONS
Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE)
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He is Platos student & staunch critic
Also Proposed 3 psyches:
oNutritivebasic psyches
Called plant soul allows to reproduce, nutrient, allowing for growth
oSensitiveIntermediary function belong to animal & accomplish the same function
as Nutritive part
but could do more complex function - Sensation (“awareness) , emotion
oRational – human soul could do the function as the 2 psyche above but could do more
complicate functions that
Sophisticated function such as abstract thinking, deliberation, to engage in complex
memory recall, abstract principles , synthesizes experience
Overall as these psyche gets more complicated – it allows for more complicated
Sensitive psyche is not complex enough to reason it is here the emotions resides in but it is
oE.g. emotions is unchecked in animals since they only have sensitive psyche which cannot
reason w/ emotion to control them
The IDEAL is the RATIONAL soul since emotion and reason exist together & via reasoning the
emotions could be controlled
oThus, reasoning is valued over emotion Rational soul is more complex than other ones
& complexity is a used as index for value
More complex = more useful/ valued
Thought we are NOT born w/ knowledge based Tabula Rasathe mind is a blank slate
oThere are no innate universals & knowledge change across time thus, need sensory info
emotional experiences to attain knowledge, grow & develop yourself, learn about the world
around and the universe
Sensory functions like the universe
He though emotion doesnt just happen to use - it depends on evaluation cognition leads to
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oEmotions then becomes your own doing – it is based on your own standards bases for your
oIn other world emotion depend on the person perception of the situation – what you think
about the world, yourself your responsible for your emotion
E.g. you could judge a simile from someone as friendly or as romantic
Aristotles Rhetoric: wrote about persuasive persona & to achieve this persona:
o1stAct like a good person its better to for others to think your good than bad & will
likely listen more to good person
o2ndMake your argument seems honest people dont like it when they think they are
being deceived
o3rdEvoke Emotions people remember more when the situation or person when
emotions is involved
It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity …..one might
as well warp a carpenter’s ruler before using it
Means dont try to force emotion on them rather evoke emotion but careful w/ what
type of emotion study the people & get to know themthen evoke emotion
that is true to who they are & where they are in their life
oE.g. trying to get donation for animal shelterIf your facing university student vs.
elementary students
Epicureanism & Stoicism
Hellenistic Period - it was a chaotic, unstable period, lot of fights (warfare) , poverty
ocivil war broke out in Greece w/ invasion of Greece by the Roman Army which was made
easier do due to the already existing civil war
civil war was between Sparta vs. AthensPeloponnesian War (431- 404 BC)
oWhen Roman Empire was established in Greece was the end of this period
During the end of this period is where Epicureanism & Stoicism - came partly as antidote to
Epicureans & Stoics agree that: Good Life” is only achieved by understanding & properly
managing ones emotions
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