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PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Primitive Culture, Phenotype, Natural Selection

Course Code
Michelle Hilscher

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Lecture ± 04 Recall«
1. Natural selection happens when:
Within-species competition ± comes from the fact there are many
individual & limited resources
Within-species differences Æ Phenotype tied to genotype Æ
difference in phenotype should be in genotype for to transfer from
generation to generation
- e.g. Beak size difference
Environment favors some heritable variations over others Æ e.g. Moth that
moth that likes light would get burned off --WKXVPRWKWKDWGRHVQ¶WOLNHOLJKW
increase in the city population

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2. Darwin Æ Emotional expressions are adaptations.
-they are actions that helped our ancestors survive Æ
increase the our chance of survival
- These actions coincided with emotions our ancestors
-e.g., crying when unhappy Æ in our ancestor tears
help to clear our eyes of dust, smokes Æ but w/
this action coincided w/ emotions - fear or sadness
-So now tears/ crying help communicate your
emotional state to others or w/ infants to signal
fear to parents

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3. Evolution and culture
-Animal at base have their basic instinct to survive & reproduce - Primitive urges
shape culture
-one of to increase survival is through formation of groups for protection &
reproduction Æ need actions to maintain social bonds w/ in groups
-Chimps maintain social bonds via grooming Æ BUT humans have large
group Æ impossible to do this Æ comes language which is versatile
-Culture controls primitive urges
-e.g. legal system - help to keep order in group & protect groups as whole
from individualistic urges that are ultimately greedy
limits to evolutionary adaptation.
-E.g. Junk Food/ Sweeth tooth ± this was good diet for our ancestor but now
ELRORJ\GLGQ¶Wcaugth w/ us Æ leads to Obesity
-E.g. being lonely in a crowd Æ emergent of Emotional Disorders
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