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Lecture 03

Course Code
Michelle Hilscher

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PSYC18 – Lecture 03
Continuation from Lecture 02
German Romanticism
Opposite to British Enlightenment British enlightenment was more about authority figure,
reasoning etc. )
This period started around 1750 – repudiation of Enlightenment ideals of reason & science
oThought EMOTIONS were IMPORTANT – not just for the purpose of romantic its
ALRIGHT to EXPRESS ALL your EMOTIONS/ feeling ( not to bottle it up)
oEmotions were coming back into the culture & society – love for landscape painting at this time
Compare the picture :
This picture from British Enlightmentsee NO EMOTIONS around here
Just a bunch of people sitting together
This is what reality of that time
Compare this pic w/ the top onefrom the Romanticism period (very different in terms of range of
Emotions presented here (this portrays the reality of that time)
LOT OF EMOTIONSrealize its not love or other type of emotions - portrays rage, anger 
type that evoke emotions that Question type of lifestyle
Jean- Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778)

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Thought human nature has been CORRPUTED by REASON & SCIENCE
oThat if people were left alone we could develop into our natural potential natural sate of
human being is that of NOBLE SAVAGE
oWe are born as savageto develop FREELY its better for our nature
Education, reasoning HINDERS / SMOOTHER our development into natural fulfillment of our
potential we are born w/
oBy going through this formal structural system our spontaneous impulses are smothered
As consequencesthought ideal form of education is HANDS OFF type
oLet them do whatever they wantlet them make mistake, ENCOURAGE SPONTANEOUS
EMOTIONS than forcing them w/ certain value, education system ( dont make them function
or go through life w/ sterility of reason)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 – 1832)
Focused on how emotions are important for artist
o artist should be aware that each COLOUR represent EMTIONS that ACT on DIFFERENT
PARTS of our BRAIN ( each colour would then represent different intellectual faculty )
E.g. red could evoke festive mood
oHave to paint w/ balance (of both positive & negative side of the hue circle) to get ideal affect
from viewers COLOUR HARMONY produce SPLENDID EFFECT - in-balance &
makes people clam
Positive sidewarm feel evoke powerful emotions BUTpeople could be too emotional
Negative sidesoft emotions people will feel restless/ anxious
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860)
What motivates us in life is “WILL TO LIVE this our basic desire - we want to survive &
reproduce BUT this is a problem since we KNOW everybody DIES sooner or later
oOur desires are FUTILE & ILLOGICAL leading to suffering & stress people deal w/ this
stress through TEMPORARY ASETHETIC CONTEMPLATION (focusing in artistic things)
Morality - believed there are 3 basic moral incentives that drive behaviour
oCOMPASSION – deep aware sympathy for someones suffering - this is the MAJOR
MOTIVATOR to moral expression

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oMALICEfeeling the need to make others suffer CORRPUT ALTERNATIVE to compassion
oEGOISMindividualistic concern SELFISH benefit you over others also CORRPUT
Friedrich Nietzche ( 1844 – 1900)
Main Motivator in life is the DESIRE TO HAVE POWERthis underlies human behaviour
A contrast to will to live this one is about adaption & struggle for survival A SECONDARY
DRIVE because in order to have power you have to life so living in itself appears to be
oSay this since in nature we see animals & humans put their life at risk for power struggle 
thus, will to have power is first
Lecture 03 – Emotions & Evolutions
Origin of Life that is questions answer depends on who you ask
oChristians in 16th century Europe believed in SPECIAL CREATION - that God created
everything (universe & organism) ORIGIN comes from GOD & that species never changed
BUT the problem is the - FOSSIL RECORD which revels that: (debunk)
oSPECIES CHANGE - things change across time (nothing is static)
oSPECIATION - see new species emerging species that didnt exist in the past
oEXTINCTIONspecies exist in past that no longer exist
As consequence to these findings from Fossil scientist starts thinking more about orgin 
leading to Early Evolutionary theories & finally to DRAWINS EVOLUTION BY NATURAL
Early Evolutionary Theories JeanBaptiste Lamarck (1744 – 1829)
A French Naturalist
Transmutation of Species (species change over generation) - he tried to explain fossil records
oTraits/ useful modification to body part (through the increased use of that part/ environmental
adaptation) that could increase rate of survival which gets TRANSLATED INTO OFFSPRING
E.g. weightlifter would have strong/ bigger muscles thus, son of weightlifter should have
bigger muscles than other offspring
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