PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Laugh Track, Chlorpromazine
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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 5:
1) Does facial feedback shape actual emotion?
2) Is emotional expression a good barometer for actual emotion
3) How might physical and psychological factors impact decoding of emotional expressions?
4) How do emotional expressions unconsciously impact us?
- Does feedback from the face shape how we feel? t feel feedback when the facial muscles move
- Floyd Allport (1924): Feedback from face helps differentiate negative emotions (anger vs. fear).
- Sylvan Tomkins (1960s): Facial muscles differentiate all emotions.
o Affect is primarily facial behavior t feedback from facial muscles creates the emotion
The Face is the Place for Emotion!
- A position maintained by Tomkins based on the following pieces of evidence:
1) Newborn babies, responsiveness to facial stimulation
2) Development of head movement, visual fixations, eye-hand coordination
3) Afferent-efferent channels t connect facial areas to brain, more nerves than other places
4) Facial muscles, resistance to habituation t very hard to stop instinctive facial expressions
5) Face is center of expression t ooµÁZ[P}]vP}v
- Ekman and Friesen (1960s): also emphasized the face as being central to emotion t let you
communicate how you feel, not create emotion
- hdY emotional expression only
Why is the face so important for expressions?
- Because it has high sending capacity, facilitated by 2 things: - transmit huge amounts of
1) Anatomical independence, 3parts:
o Brow-forehead, eye-lids-bridge of nose, lower face
2) Low transmission time
o See very quick changes in emotional expression
o Micro-momentary expression in the face
Does Expression Represent Actual Emotion?
Schachter & Wheeler (1962)
- Male subjects viewed slapstick film
- Epinephrine (adrenaline t more likely to laugh), Chlorpromazine
(slows them down t less likely to laugh) or Placebo condition
- DVs: Laughter, Ratings of funniness (no significant difference)
1) Artificial induction of expression did not cause emotion
2) Artificial reduction in expression did not inhibit emotion
- Did not enjoy/dislike the movie more
- µYZ]Á}voÇµÇÁ]ZuvJ t maybe different with
Cupchik & Leventhal (1974)
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- Male & female participants, single-frame cartoons
- Canned laughter present or absent t ^µ]}}]vP}(ooµPZ]vP_
- Expression & Evaluation
For women only: canned laughter impacted evaluation
µY Does this mean women were more amused in the canned laughter
- female enjoyed the movie more due to social modeling/ generation
Recall Our Original Question: Does Expression Represent Actual Emotion?
- Early research has shown that expression is not always representative
of presence, degree or type of underlying felt emotion.
- E}µ]]vPY amount of laughter does not affect the actual emotion
o Stress/nervousness can also caused laughter
So, how to differentiate real emotional expressions from non-emotional or feigned ones?
KoÇ]Wis the smile genuine?
- Brief (1-10secs), involuntary (muscle actions cannot fake), continuity (can see in animal kingdom)
- E.g., Embarrassment = (in humans and in animals)
o Gaze aversion or face touching
o Embarrassed smile interspersed with pressing lips
o Head down
Ekman & Friesen (1988). In JPSP. - Smiles When Lying
- Previously thought body is better gauge than face.
- Face is being controlled by the liar.
- However, perhaps some involuntarÇ}Æ]}vY~}uZ]vPvv}}v}oo
o Macroexpressions (dominant facial expression ex: big smile) vs. microexpressions
(involuntary emotions, more subtle and reveal the true emotions)
1) Fake and Real smiles elicited and videotaped
- ^µvvµ]vÀ]Á}µ(]ouZÇ[ÀÁZX t happy animals or gruesome
- How do you feel about the film?
- Honest vs. Deceptive interview t real vs fake smile
2) Can people spot the liars?
- New student nurses evaluate still-frame photos from videos
- vÁZZ]]]Yµv]Ç (how many, intensity) vs. quality (type of expression)
o When people are lying they smile more
o Look at the rest of the face, what is going on holistically
o True smile t relaxed upper lip, wrinkled eye
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