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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 6:
How do emotions pertain to the body?
1) Emotions and Body Action
- Emotions beings about reflexive body action (Laycock, 1855) - involuntary
o Ex: fear t running away
- Once induced by emotion, reflex action:
a. mediates between organism & environment
b. functions according to principle of self-preservation t helps survival
c. is automatic t }v[ rely on consciousness (ex: you jump back when snake attacks)
Harvey Carr (1873 - 1954)
- Emotion calls for deliberate action:
o Something that tells us we can keep going in our automatic routine, we need to use
- Emotion signals failure of instinct or presence of novelty. t when our instinct }v[ work,
- How is Emotion Adaptive?
- vPÇZv]ZPÇZ}ÇY}uZ]vPZv}^awaken a vigorous
o Emotion signals body of organism to react t emotion tells you reflexive action is not
enough to deal with the problem
John B. Watson (1878 - 1958)
- Pattern theory of emotion:
- ^vu}]}v]Z]Çv-reaction involving changes of the bodily mechanism
as a whole, but particularly of the visceral vPovµoÇuX_
- Emotions are instinctive responses to environmental stimuli
o Fear is the unconditioned response to the hawk, leads to automatic behavior - flight
- Two-part bodily response
o Things in the environment are tied to the body,
o can increase heart rate, can cause changes in internal body, can cause changes in
o Innate, instinctual actions t tied to emotional responses when we engage with our
- Watson adds: Emotions can be swayed by conditioning
o can change thru therapy, can learn not to run away, override our instincts
- Emotions can HELP: they aid in self-preservation.
- Heuristics for adaptive behavior
- Appraisal of good vs. bad - ^ÁZvZ]vPs are going according to plan, you are happy_
- Aid in maintenance of homeostasis - Bodily functions
- Emotions may also HINDER
o e.g., Yerkes-Dodson Law ->
o ^the over-eager golfer, teeing off, makes a poor shot_
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2) Emotion and Bodily Feelings
- Emotions can cause, facilitate, or interfere w/ bodily action.
- Emotions also associated with bodily sensations:
o cause & caused by bodily sensations. (ex: fear = increased heart rate)
o particular feelings in our body can cause emotions (ex: pain, hunger)
- So, conventionally: EVENT Æ EMOTION Æ BODILY CHANGE + ACTION
- But for James: EVENT Æ BODILY CHANGE + ACTION Æ EMOTION
Illustraion of Contrast
- Conventional version?
o You see bear, you feel fear, you run
o I see pickles I like them I want to eat them
- Jamesian version?
o You see the bear, you run away, after you have escaped you feel fear
o I had a pickle last week so I must like them so /[ll eat them
Gregorio Maranon & W.B. Cannon
- Maranon: What happens when people are injected with adrenaline?
1. FIRST DEGREE REACTION (~80% of people)
- ^µi]À]}vU^en froid,_}(}u]]µv t change in body without emotion
o 79% of 210 subjects
- Awareness of bodily arousal t feel change in their heartbeat
- Awareness of autonomic symptomatology of emotion. t aware that these bodily symptoms
goes with an emotion but they v[ having that emotion
- Yet, experienced incomplete emotion
o e.g., ^as if I were frightened, however, I am calm_
2. SECOND DEGREE REACTION (Remaining 21%)
- Entire felt emotion t generate a cognitive script, recall a memory, bring about a full blown
emotional experience - bodily arousal fits with a cognitive script
o justified bodily emotion with a memory which caused the emotion
- Psychological component to the experience, not just bodily arousal. t psychological motif
o ^Psychological emotion is superimposed upon the autonomic reaction and is
apprehended as a complete affective stateX_
- What was the difference for these participants?
Dv}v[dÁ}-Factor Theory of Emotion
- In correspondence with findings, emotion is comprised of:
1. A bodily component (o[ u}]}vÀ P ]À) t give them injection
2. A psychological component (l[ u}]}vÇZ]µ) t recall a memory
- Co-presence of both enables a complete affective state.
- Recall James: autonomic specificity for emotion
- Yet, Cannon points outY
1. Same bodily changes accompany different emotions.
a. e.g., general arousal response
2. Autonomic changes are incremental t small changes in body
3. Autonomic changes are too slow t compared to how quick emotions hit us
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