Lecture Notes

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30 Oct 2010
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PSYC18 - 2
Recall:
1. Mind and body conventionally separated
2. u}]}vo}vP}Z}µ]o}Ç[
3. Some more lenient than others about emotions and sensory experience
- Olympic vs. orphic
- Naturalists vs. formalists
4. Hippocrates t psychobiological explanation
5. Socrates t emotion is moral evaluation
Plato
- Three parts to the soul:
1. Reason
- Serves the function of cognition and thinking
- Location: head
- Reason is divine, perfect, separate from the body, immortal
- When the body dies, the reasoning part of the soul lives on
2. Passion
- Serves the function of motivating us
- Willful action
- Location: chest
- Relates to emotional courage
- Honourable,
- Different from appetite because passion is more honourable form of the soul
- Passion is associated to the body, so when body dies, passion dies
3. Appetite
- Associated with the body
- Location: body
- Affection, dry
- Base sensual desires
- Desire to touch, be touched, have sex, to eat
- Passion and appetite inferior to reason
Implications for education
- ,}ÁÁovYo}[Z}Ç}((}u
o Information is changing and eternal
o Its there eveytime the body revives
- Point of education is to reawaken/rekindle the knowledge that was there before in the past
life
- Sensory information is not useful at all for plato
- Doxa: sensory knowledge
o dv]vUv[ust it, always changing
- Wo}[o](Ço(oZ]Z]o}}ZÇ
o Removed himself from sensory emotions
o ]Z]uo(}Z^P}}o](}vuo]}v_
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Aristotle
- Three types of psyches:
1. Nutritive
- The plant psyche
- Serves thebasic biological function of growth, self maintenance through nutrition, and
reproduction
- Lowest of all
2. Sensitive
- The animal psyche
- Sensation t to feel pleasure/pain, also allows us to have imagination, and perform
recognition memory and locomotion
3. Rational
- The human psyche
- Abstraction, deliberation t decision, recollection t effortful recall
- More conscious memory than sensitive memory
- The human being is more controlled and rational but have energy from emotions
- Plants t animals t humans t gods
o Increasing complexity
o Conceptualizes emotions in the same way
o Emotion is more simple and inferior
o Reasoning is higher up
- Plato says that education serves the purpose of just reawakening
o We already have the knowledge born in us
- Aristotle says we are born with no knowledge base and everyone is the same when we are
born, but we attain knowledge through sensory experiences
Is the mind immortal?
- Plato said that part of the soul that reasons is divine
o It is reborn in the body
- Aristotle makes no discrimination with the mind and the body
o So when body dies, reasoning psyches dies
- Aristotle says that mind is further up in the scale than the body because it is more complex
tZ]ZvµY
- u}]}v}v[Zv}µUZÇv}vÀoµ]}v
o They depend on what we believe about ourselves, others, and all around us
o We are the ones who cause our own emotions
o E.g. if someone smiling at you, you may feel happy because you take it as a form of
greeting/welcome, but you may be nervous if you are unsure about the
situation/person
]}o[Z}]W
How to persuade somebody?
1. Act like a good person
2. Make your argument seem honest
3. Evoke emotions
- Gives more weight to what you have to say
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- Make you more trustable
- z}µ}v[ÁvvÀ}l(ou}]}vUµÇ}µv}µvvÇ}µr audience
- E.g. if you want people to give money to the animal shelter, you need to know how to
persuade that person.
o You can do a survey to understand the crowd
o If crowd is greedy, appeal to their greedy side
o Or pity, or hope
Epicureanism
The Hellenistic period
- There is a civil war is Sparta and Athens in Greece t Peloponnesian war
o Greece is weak, romans evade Greece
- A lot of uncertainty and unstability
- Epicureans and stoics have different views
Points of agreement
- They think you can live a good life if you understand and properly manage your own
emotions
- Suppression- you are already experiencing emotions but you have to stop them
- Prevention - do something in your life to stop emotions from ever happening
- Focus on prevention
o Figure out what causes them
o Identify physical and mental stimuli and avoid them
Epicureanism
- Believed that moderation is what underlies happiness
o Eat, drink, own only what you need and not more
- Greatest threat: excess
- You can still have pleasure
o Enjoy the basic needs that you have to do but not the excess
- Broader philosophy: there are biological needs in us that associates us as animals, but if left
uncheck, these emotions can take us over and make us irrational
o }v[(}µÁoZv}Á
o ^Z}µov[ZÀP}ol}vvl]]}vZ are unnecessary for physiological
living
The satisfaction/denial of these desires are what causes damaging emotions
that are threatening society
Stoicism
- We should not have ANY desires
o Including food t even if we are starving
o If we have no desires, we }v[]À}µoÀ}}vÇZ]vP
- Predestination t there is a divine purpose for everybody and everybody is destined to end
up in a particular way
o You can say you have a purpose/goal but the gods designed the ending
o Desires are useless because everything is planned
- Accept your lot in life with indifference
- Trust the things to turn out as they are supposed to
Roman empire and Christianity
- Roman empire adopts Christianity
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