Moths have preference for light (emotion)
- Making it to sexual maturity = basic survival
- Pressure to survive t self-preservation
- Pressure to find a mate t self-propogation
- Which behaviours and emotions:
o Help us survive?
o Help us to reproduce?
o Help us pass our genes to the next generation?
- We presume that emotions serve functions:
o Orienting t make us aware of a problem
o Organizing t coordinate our response
o Interacting t establish social bonds to find a mate
o Increase our chance of surviving and find a mate
o How are emotions expressed in the face?
Also observed expression of actors that have no emotions attached to it and
compared to people from an asylum
o What noises do animals make when emotional?
How animals express anger or happiness
o Thought of expression in a multi-faceted way:
Face, body movements (tension, posture), vocalization
Darwin and emotional expressions as adaptations
- Emotional expression is merely an action that is used to directly aid with survival
o E.g. cat pulls back ears during a fight to prevent them being bit off
- At that time performed in conjunction with felt emotion
o E.g. anger; happiness and gratitude
o The action (pull ears back) originally linked to an emotion (fight t anger), animal will pull
ears back when it feels anger
- Emotion expression is an intention movement t suggests what actions may follow
o E.g. violence, submission
o Can show that cat is angry instead of engaging in a fight to preserve life
- Over time all it takes is the emotional expression, not the elaborate suite of actions themselves
o Expression is a better survival fuarantee
- Eventually, expression occurs even in situations where the action is useless or futile
Darwin, Antithesis, and Overflows
- Antithesis principle: approach signal is the exact opposite of the avoid signal
- overflows: puzzling gestures and vocalizations
o why we cry whvÁ[U}Z}µÁZvÁ
o e.g. shake hand when struck painful
o have no function but are release of pent-up energy