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Lecture 8

Lecture 8

Course Code
Michelle Hilscher

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PSYC18 t 8
The brain causes emotions
- Peripheralist: thinks that the feedback you get from your physiological body causes
psychological processes
- Centralist t feedback from your central nervous system (brain)causes your capacity to think or
feel emotions
Recall plato
- Reasoning part (head) responsible for thinking
- Plato is a peripheralist
- The body, specifically the heart, refines qualities/energy in the air and yields vital spirits that
drive bodily functions
o But the vital spirits are not refined enough to give rise to psychological functions
- The brain (marvellous net), referring to blood vessels, takes the vital spirits and are refined to
animal spirits that are sophisticated enough to yield psychological processes
- Galen is a centralist
David Hartley
- 2 types of processes in the brain
- Sense impressions
o Perceptions of the stimulus while it is present
o Having sensations, perceiving something in front of you
o Result of vibrations in the brain (grey matter)
- Thoughts
o Memories of objects in the past that are no longer in front of you
o Result from smaller vibrations t vibratiuncles
- Fusion t connection between different parts of the brain when it is vibrating at a particular
o Stimulus causes brain to vibrate at a certain frequency
o Its like emotional conditioning in the brain
o Positive fusion - If I give you an ice cream every time you do math, in the future, math
will be more enjoyable without ice cream
o Negative fusion t I show you a snake picture with an electrical shock, in the future, will
fear snake picture even without shock
- Pleasure
o E.g. when you go on a rollercoaster, you may feel pleasure (fun), but too much can make
you sick
o Similar to Yerkes-Dodson law t too much is no good
- Hartley is a centralist
Emotion originates in the brain
- Galen t brain refines energy
- Hartley t brain is a tuning fork where different parts vibrate differently
Emotion originates in the body
- Tomkins t face is the center of emotion
- James t body is the center of emotion
Can it really be one or the other?

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- Maranon t have to have body reactions but need to conceptualize the reaction to produce
- Schachter and singer t
Theoretical complementarity shows up in real life
- E.g. personality an impact pain perception
o If you are neurotic, a little pain can be a big deal
- E.g. mood
o If you are sad, the emotional pain can camouflage the physical pain
- E.g. type of thinking
o Pessimist, you may think a electric shock is more intense than a optimist
o If you are an optimist, optimistic thinking can help with dealing with physical pain e.g.
- E.g. sense for control
o If you have no control, you will feel more pain because you know nothing about it so
o A lot of treatment of chronic pain is to educate them about the pain
- E.g. situational factors
o Distraction reduces pain
- E.g. cues in the environment
o Danger cues will intensify pain compared to a safe environment
- tZvÁÆ]v]vUÁ}v[oÁÇÆ]vvP]À}]oÇu}]}v
o It depends on appraisal t the type of thinking
How you combine information about your self and information about the
o Pain becomes more manageable if you can justify or understand it
E.g. shachter and singer t social comparison
Wundt: principle of psychical resultants
- When you have multiple thoughts and emotions in your brain, they all impact and transform
each other
- Perceived pain is a mental phenomenon
- Pain perception is not different from other emotions going on in your mind t they are thoughts
- So pain perceptions are also impacted by the mental state of your mind
- Amount of pain does not depend on the mental state, but also the type of pain
o E.g. pain on cheek and pain on back are different intensity
Pain perception in children
- Children have an IV put in before getting fMRIt very painful for children
- Conventionally, doctors give them a spray anaesthetic
- Try virtual reality game
- Possible reasons:
o Games are wholly absorbing and take a lot of attention to play
o Z]ovÁ]ooÁZ}ZÇv[Z/s]vPµ]v
- Methods
o Physical pain intensity
Asked how much pain
Nurse/parent rate expressions and screaming/crying
o Affective pain
Recorded with stages of receiving IV
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