Lecture 10

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30 Oct 2010
The parent-child relationship
- Newborns are pre-verbal
o Expression of emotions is the only mean of communicating
- Allows simple messages about basic needs
o Cry = hungry, poo, upset, uncomfortable
o Smile = happy, satisfied
- No further differentiation required
o Babies only need basic signals for basic needs
o Nothing more required
o D}u]ZÇv]À}vÁ}v[v
o General expression is all needed, further differentiation will confuse parents
- Some people think babies start differentiating emotions earlier, others later
o Because of their criterion for measuring expression
What is this baby expressing?
- Face focus
o Only look at the face
o E.g. furrowed brow, downturned corner of mouth = angry
o But may not be the best criterion
o Baby may be just moving face muscles = non-emotional
- Face + situation focus
o Compare face with environment
o If they match = emotional expression
o E.g. baby plays with toy that makes noise, toy run out of batteries, makes expression
that sad toy not making more noise
o E.g. baby plays with toy and toy makes loud sound, makes expression of fear
Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for fear and anger?
- Ethics t if babies cry more than 7 seconds, experiment is stopped
- Capture close-µ}(Ç[(vµÁ]-angle shot of baby (body language)
o Facial expression coding + body action
- Body behaviour coding:
o Baseline = before elicitor
o Question is if expression different for anger and fear
o FACS t code which muscle groups are activated
- Results
o Significant differences between arm and gorilla in P-value
o 60 out of 72 in arm restraint condition struggle but no struggling in gorilla condition
Instead they become still/no movement in gorilla condition
P-value of 0.001 for increased respiration in gorilla condition though
o Similarities:
look towards mom in both conditions
o ranks
#1 struggling for restraint condition
#1 increased respiration for gorilla condition
o No difference in facial expression for both condition
o Most common combination is crying and nose-wrinkle
o No difference across cultures
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- µZ}[]v]}v
o Struggling correlated to fear emotions t trying to escape
o Stillness = vigilance
o t}v[}ÇovPµP]((vvo}Z(M
Facial movements are the result of non-emotional AND emotional factors
Babies are orienting the face t trying to focus on a part of the environment
Extraneous muscle activity used to orient the face are more dominant
Only by looking at body movement can one tell how baby feels
Expressing displeasure to your parents
- E.g. in the past, baÇ[u]vv]](Ç]vPvPt hungry/full
o Now after experiencing different kinds of foods, he expresses preference for certain
foods so he shows disgust for peas because he wants carrots
o (]vP(}UÇv[Z}Á]PµP]v(}ing full t confusing
o New expressions develop
- Shift in nature of communication t ÇvP]Àu}]v(}u]}v}ZP]À}v[
have to guess as much
Attachment in the parent-child relationship
- Usually between child and mom (primary caregiver)
- Maivµ}](}ZZ]o[µÀ]Ào
- Attachment-motivated behaviour e.g. crying when lost (in danger)
- Any basic behaviour mom gives to baby is attachment-motivated to fulfill a basic ned
- Attachment vs. affiliation
o Attachment may be thought as love
o But oatley says love is associated with affiliation
o Affiliation goes with affection (love)
o D}u]vÆ]}µ](Z}v[lv}ÁÁZZZ]o]vZÇ]vÆ]}µ](Z
o A caregiver is one who can accomplish attachment goals and to accomplish affection
o Ç]v(µo(]ooZ]o[]v~(]vPUÁZ]vP}ÀµuÇv}o}ÀZ]u
Child experiences different emotions
- Graph:
o Attachment t ÁZZZZ]o[}}]Z}v}
o Affiliation t if mom is there, baby feels love
Loss of mom, baby feels sad
o Assertion t the social position of the child is threatened (angry) or if removed (shame)
Angry if his social power is threatened
he gets angry
E.g. child is dominant in eyes of friends, mom comes and talks over him, he feels
embarrassed because dominance removed
Attachment allows growth of autonomy
- Encourages curiosity
o Secure attachment (clingy) = gives children a safe base
o Allows child to explore the world with this security
- Allows construction of internal model about social interactions
o Learns to cooperate with the attachment figure (mom)
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