Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (9,000)
PSYC18H3 (300)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Lecture
10

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PSYC18-10
The parent-child relationship
- Newborns are pre-verbal
o Expression of emotions is the only mean of communicating
- Allows simple messages about basic needs
o Cry = hungry, poo, upset, uncomfortable
o Smile = happy, satisfied
- No further differentiation required
o Babies only need basic signals for basic needs
o Nothing more required
o D}u]ZÇv]À}vÁ}v[v
o General expression is all needed, further differentiation will confuse parents
- Some people think babies start differentiating emotions earlier, others later
o Because of their criterion for measuring expression
What is this baby expressing?
- Face focus
o Only look at the face
o E.g. furrowed brow, downturned corner of mouth = angry
o But may not be the best criterion
o Baby may be just moving face muscles = non-emotional
- Face + situation focus
o Compare face with environment
o If they match = emotional expression
o E.g. baby plays with toy that makes noise, toy run out of batteries, makes expression
that sad toy not making more noise
o E.g. baby plays with toy and toy makes loud sound, makes expression of fear
Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for fear and anger?
- Ethics t if babies cry more than 7 seconds, experiment is stopped
- Capture close-µ}(Ç[(vµÁ]-angle shot of baby (body language)
o Facial expression coding + body action
- Body behaviour coding:
o Baseline = before elicitor
o Question is if expression different for anger and fear
o FACS t code which muscle groups are activated
- Results
o Significant differences between arm and gorilla in P-value
o 60 out of 72 in arm restraint condition struggle but no struggling in gorilla condition
 Instead they become still/no movement in gorilla condition
 P-value of 0.001 for increased respiration in gorilla condition though
o Similarities:
 look towards mom in both conditions
o ranks
 #1 struggling for restraint condition
 #1 increased respiration for gorilla condition
o No difference in facial expression for both condition
o Most common combination is crying and nose-wrinkle
o No difference across cultures
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- µZ}[]v]}v
o Struggling correlated to fear emotions t trying to escape
o Stillness = vigilance
o tZÇ}v[}ÇovPµP]((vvo}Z(M
 Facial movements are the result of non-emotional AND emotional factors
 Babies are orienting the face t trying to focus on a part of the environment
 Extraneous muscle activity used to orient the face are more dominant
 Only by looking at body movement can one tell how baby feels
Expressing displeasure to your parents
- E.g. in the past, baÇ[u]vv]](Ç]vPZµvPt hungry/full
o Now after experiencing different kinds of foods, he expresses preference for certain
foods so he shows disgust for peas because he wants carrots
o (]vP(}UÇv[Z}Á]PµP]v(}ing full t confusing
o New expressions develop
- Shift in nature of communication t ÇvP]Àu}]v(}u]}v}ZP]À}v[
have to guess as much
Attachment in the parent-child relationship
- Usually between child and mom (primary caregiver)
- Maivµ}](}ZZ]o[µÀ]Ào
- Attachment-motivated behaviour e.g. crying when lost (in danger)
- Any basic behaviour mom gives to baby is attachment-motivated to fulfill a basic ned
- Attachment vs. affiliation
o Attachment may be thought as love
o But oatley says love is associated with affiliation
o Affiliation goes with affection (love)
o D}u]vÆ]}µ](Z}v[lv}ÁÁZZZ]o]vZÇ]vÆ]}µ](Z
}v[lv}ÁÁZZu}u]
o A caregiver is one who can accomplish attachment goals and to accomplish affection
goals
o Ç]v(µo(]ooZ]o[]v~(]vPUÁZ]vP}ÀµuÇv}o}ÀZ]u
Child experiences different emotions
- Graph:
o Attachment t ÁZZZZ]o[}}]Z}v}
o Affiliation t if mom is there, baby feels love
 Loss of mom, baby feels sad
o Assertion t the social position of the child is threatened (angry) or if removed (shame)
 Angry if his social power is threatened
 XPXu}ulZ]u}µZ}v[Áv}vv[}vÇZ]vPU
he gets angry
 E.g. child is dominant in eyes of friends, mom comes and talks over him, he feels
embarrassed because dominance removed
Attachment allows growth of autonomy
- Encourages curiosity
o Secure attachment (clingy) = gives children a safe base
o Allows child to explore the world with this security
- Allows construction of internal model about social interactions
o Learns to cooperate with the attachment figure (mom)
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