Christians in 16th century europe: special creation: god created the universe and all life. Fossil records question special creation - yet, the fossil record reveals: 1. Transmutation of species was explained by principle of inheritance of acquired characteristics. Soft heredity mistaking phenotype for genotype not what heredity is now. Assumed behaviour and emotions are genetically based. Lyell addresses that the earth is thought to be young, but fossil records show changes happen very gradually if the earth is young there would not have been enough time to observe the changes. Principles of geology: he looked at the layers of the earth and found that the earth is actually much older. Meaning - there is enough time for species change. Population growth rate > food growth rate: population grows more quickly than food. Inevitably creates a struggle for existence: because the rates are not equal, there will be a struggle, survival of the fittest.