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Lecture notes for Lecture 3

Course Code
Gerald Cupchik

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Lecture 4
Phenomena as more important than theory
-When doing research you always want to look or work through examples, such as case
studies(an example-phenomena- before the plan-theory-)
oScience is composed of patience and irony; you must look at things in context(ie;
A scientist is conducting this experiment, even if he or she did all the steps of the
experiment correctly, the results may have been found in error. This is why
scientists must be meticulous and patient, question the process of their research,
else they’ll receive strange results that people might interpret as fact- The irony!)
oMust not exclude any ‘human powers’ from scientific activity, we want a variety
of skills at our disposal- always be open to insight
oGoethe believes that facts are components of a phenomena and we can reconstruct
and view it by using comprehension which takes the form of fullness of the
phenomena(eg; a jigsaw puzzle. Each piece is a fact, putting them together makes
up the full picture, the phenomena)
The initial work
- Involves data collection, examination and organization of phenomena. These are very
important and must not be contaminated by scientist who released their imagination and
wit who wishes to interpret the data
oNewton broke things down into pieces; Goethe criticized him by saying that
he(himself) was genetic(evolving over time), dynamic(fluid) and concrete(sees the
world as it is) while Newton was atomistic, mechanical(stuck in his ways) and
...he got in trouble for this; but the point is that he criticizes sticking to the
rules and being stuck in componential ways(seeing the world in pieces);
being fluid, open to new things and seeing things holistically is what
Goethe is trying to promote
oGoethe believes that method begins with a question about a phenomena, which
seems to be a part of a whole(eg Drug problem in a kid; We need to look at the
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