PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Evagrius Ponticus, Seven Deadly Sins, Ataraxia

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11 Feb 2016
Lecture 1
The history of emotions
1. ‘emotion’ used the rst in 1570s france
2. ‘emotion’ comes from ‘emotion’ – to set in motion or move the feelings; implies action and
motivation, very active, di%erent conception of emotions than earlier times when emotions
were more passive
3. Ancient china – theory of 7 emotions
1. ‘qi’ – energy or life force that lives in your body that moves around as a dynamic
concept; to surge or swash around in your body; can be in+uenced by lots of things like
tai chi, meditation and emotions
2. 7 emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, worry, fear, terror, anxiety
3. Too much of any one of these emotions, causes your qi to go out of balance and cause
physical ailments; everything to be had in moderation
4. I.e. Too much anger – qi moves upwards – headaches, impairs liver
5. I.e. Too much joy – qi relaxes – impairs heart, results in weakness
4. Ancient mesopotamia – egypt
1. Emotions expressed in art
2. Emotions not displayed on the face of humans; faces are stoic and calm – theorized
that artists just didn’t have the ability to, but animals did have expressions on their
3. Expressed their emotion through other means because expressing emotion on the face
was considered informal, not proper – used body movements (i.e. Raising hands in front
of face – fear)
Hippocrates (460-377 bce)
1. First physiological account of emotion
2. Put emphasis on brain and not the heart (in ancient egypt, all organs were take out of
mummied body except the heart because it was considered the most important)
3. Humours – blood(sanguine), phlegm(phlegmatic), black bile(melancholic), yellow
1. Excess or not enough of these impact the brain
2. The brain then produced feelings of emotion
3. The body expresses that emotion and impacts your personality
4. Each disease associated with excess or deciency of a humour– fever is a hot and dry
disease caused by excess of yellow bile – would treat it with a cold and wet bath;
induce the opposite state to counteract the disease
5. Linked to temperature (hot and dry vs. Cold and wet)
6. Vary from stable (sanguine, phlegmatic) to unstable (choleric, melancholic)
Greek philosophy – plato
The soul is made of up 3 parts
1. Logical – decides what is true and false, the rational part of the soul
2. Appetitive – carnal, animalistic instincts – greed, sex, hunger – crazy emotional
part of the soul that needs to be kept in check (emotion)
3. Spirited – mediator between logical and appetitive; motivation
1. Chariot and two horses analogy – spirited was the charioteer and the two horses were the
appetitive and logical parts; need to have the motivation to control competing
desires/horses – but logical part should be dominant
2. Appetitive & spirited = emotion (modern day)
1. Pathos (passions or emotions) are passive; aren’t good or bad in themselves; take on a
value once they come into our body and become a part of our state; our personality/state
is important in shaping pathos (context is important); how we interpret them
2. 2 kinds of virtues that are important to cultivate in a person
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