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Lecture 2

PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ovulatory Shift Hypothesis, Thomas Robert Malthus, Webcam

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Rimma Teper

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Lecture 2
Precursors to Darwin's Theory
Jean Baptiste Lamark
certain traits that animals have give them advantages in certain environments making them
most likely to survive
these advantages can be passed down to offspring (not true)
Charles Lyell
uniformitarianism - the earth has been shaped by forces that are still in action today
in opposition to Christian thoughts (Earth was created the way it is)
Thomas Malthus
population growth is kept in check with various vices
if you are able to combat these vices, you are more likely to survive
Charles Darwin
observations were made on the Galapagos Islands
variations in the beaks of finches depending on the island of origin
each beak made for optimal survival on their particular island
Natural Selection
two factors must be present
1. Genetic variation
genotypes create certain phenotypes
ex. genotypic code for blue eyes results in phenotypic blue eyes
2. Selection pressures
environment favours certain genes
what is the goal?
passing on our genetic code
how do we achieve it?
survival, reproduction, child care
Sexual Selection
making it to sexual maturity means survival
choosing and securing best possible mate for reproduction
ovulatory shift hypothesis
female behaviour changes depending on fertility timing
more flirtatious
try to look more attractive
find facial scars in men more attractive
prefer men with a deeper voice
prefer dominant men
higher pitched voice
only for short-term mating
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sexy cads or good dads study
study design
2 ovulating and 2 non-ovulating women
2 sexy cads and 2 good dads
women interact w/ 2 "twin" (really the same person) males via webcam
raters observed and recorded flirting behaviour
non-ovulating women flirting about the same
ovulating women flirted more the "sexy cad"
nice guys finish last study
study design
1 ovulating woman
1 non-ovulating woman
series of men recorded "dating profile" videos as part of a study
women watched videos and rated men on a series of traits
compared short-term vs. long-term desire with ovulating and non-ovulating women
ovulating women
physically attractive, muscular, arrogant
males prefer
women with bigger waist to hip ratio
healthy to carry a child
women with good skin signify good health
Child Care
features that promote us to care for children
big eyes, soft skin, large forehead, small chin
Darwin's Study of Emotional Expressions
3 Principles
1. Serviceable Associated Habits
actions that continue to occur even after being not necessarily useful since evolution
intention movement
ex. animals growl to scare attackers
2. Antithesis
some expressions are opposites of others
ex. postures - dominance is shown by strong postures and submission by poor posture
3. Expressive habits
caused by too much energy in the nervous system
Critiques of Darwin
regardless of anything, we should all have the same emotions
can't prove
Darwin made explanations that fit his theory (post hoc explanation)
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