PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Developmental Psychology, John Bowlby, Overjustification Effect

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10 Aug 2016
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Week 11 – Lecture #9: Thursday July 14, 2016
Emotions & Development
- first half of the life cycle
- looking at the emotions and development in children
- why development early on is important for later in life
Today’s Lecture
Unpacking “emotional intelligence”
- theory of mind & etc.
- employers value EQ over IQ
- big predictor of success
Why is it important for development?
The parent-child relationship
- shapes the children’s ability to navigate in everyday life in an emotional way
The origin of emotional intelligence
The outside world
- shapes the child’s ability to build EQ
Consequences of play
- playing and imagination
The development of altruism
- thought to be selfish brats
- but evidence that they’re not selfish, turns out to be altruism
Theories of Emotional Development
Differential emotions theory – basic emotions are hard-wired & present from birth
- emotions we have are biologically engrained from birth
- every emotion have an unique emotional signature
Differentiation theory – infants start out with 2 basic emotion states (negative vs.
positive)
- born with 2 states
- positive affect state: everything is good and they’re happy
- negative affect state: not feeling so good
- not differentiate from born (e.g., fear and anger), only sense displeasure
- indicate sth’s wrong from crying, but can’t categorize it
Functionalist theory – emotions are social, differ depending on context, and serve
communicative function
- emotional develop thru social interaction & infant use emotional lang to
communicate what they mean
- not hardwired like the other 2
Parent-Child Relationships are the Foundation for…
- very important b/c builds foundation for many things that come later in life
Emotional Intelligence
- starting pt for children to develop EQ
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Meta-cognitive skills
- ability to think about sth (abstract thinking)
Theory-of-mind
- being able to understand that another person might have another perspective as
you
- diff knowledge and mind as you (put yourself in their shoes)
Emotional intelligence – ability to communicate, and understand one’s emotions.
- aware of your emotional state, communicate how you’re feeling, label your
emotions and experiences
Metacognitive skills – includes self-monitoring, self-reflection and self-regulation.
- self-reg; translate to important life outcome: job, health habits
Theory of mind – cognitive understanding of others’ mental states. Ability to infer what
others might be thinking, or what their intentions are.
- important skill to have; navigating social world
Sally Ann task
- Ann changes the location of the ball; done when Sally’s
not in the room
- child knows that the ball is in the box b/c they witness this
- but if child has theory of mind, then they’re also gonna
be able to infer that Sally won’t know this b/c she wasn’t
in the room when ball was transfer
- children using develop this at age 4/5, where they’re able
to understand and take on this perspective
- needa take Sally’s perspective and what her behaviour leads to
- but if don’t have theory of mind then wont be able to infer this
- like in hide-and-seek, hiding behind a pole and
thinking they won’t be seen b/c they can’t see the
seeker (back facing someone)
Emotional Competence in Children
1. Capacity to empathize and sympathize
- take other perspective and offer sympathy
2. Ability to use emotional vocabulary
- properly label feelings --> sad b/c can’t play w/ frd
- & feelings of others (reading story & asking how MC feels)
3. Situational/expressive understanding of others’ emotions
- ability to understand why someone is feeling the way they’re feeling
- & being able to express that
4. Awareness of one’s own emotions
- don’t know what it is they’re feeling (sad--> only know they’re in a bad mood)
- role of parent; label their emotion (take away toy --> tantrum --> parent says you
must be sad b/c I took away your toy)
5. Awareness that emotions are the basis of social relationships
- behaviour have consequences and make other ppl feel a certain way
- emotions: foundation of social relationships
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6. Capacity to self-regulate
- child prefrontal cortex not fully develop; can’t self-regulate
- regulating emotions: hard time doing it; temper tantrums
- adults: hard to understand their reaction (getting mad b/c can’t wear a shirt in the
wash)
- but for child, that’s the only way they know how to react; don’t know
appropriate behaviour
- takes time to develop; can’t potty train @ 6 months old
7. Realizing that inner emotions may not accord with expressed emotion
- play and imagination, role-play exercise
- how children learn to understand
- just b/c someone’s expressing that emotion doesn’t mean they’re feeling that
emotion
- parent in bad mood --> pretend to be in good mood
- but bad for children: can pick up that they’re in a bad mood
- child learn ppl can’t be trustworthy; not expressing their true emotions
This Skill Set Starts Being Built in Childhood
Emotion is the key to skill acquisition!
WHY?
Emotional expressions are the first language between parents and children.
- children don’t learn to talk until ½
- so only way to comm is thru emotions
Emotions allow parents and children to bond
- fundamental needs for attachment
- help use to take care of them and provide them with affection and help them
Emotions are motivating on both sides… encouraging parents to teach and
children to learn.
- role of negative affect release
- failure of building tower out of block
- will feel frustration, but that frustration will lead them to succeed in the future
- basically all the communication that happens at a young age is thru emotions
Emotion is the First Language
Emotional expression is key for communication between parents and children of all
ages.
- even for children who knows how to comm thru lang
In newborns…
pre-linguistic
- can only comm thru emotions
allows simple messages about basic needs.
- if they’re happy/unhappy
- hungry, diaper change, etc.
no further differentiation required.
- positive/negative affect is sufficient
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