PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Avail, Rebound Effect, Phineas Gage

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10 Aug 2016
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Week 9 – Lecture #7: Thursday June 30, 2016
Emotions & The Brain
Today’s Lecture
Revisiting the structure of the brain
Limbic system & neocortex
Basic emotions and the limbic system
What does the amygdala actually do?
Social emotions and emotion regulation
Interpret Lecture with Caution
Molly Crocket TED Talk:
http://www.ted.com/talks/molly_crockett_beware_neuro_bunk?language=en
serotonin and decision making
- disgusting lemon drink that takes away serotonin in the brain
- more likely to take revenge
- some thing exist in cheese and chocolate
- helps ppl make decision
- neuroscience showing up more and more in science
-e.g. neuro bliss drink
- no trials that tested this
- the image of the brain sells products
- ppl agree more w/ the conclusions of the same article with an image of the brain
- iPhone love study
- scan a part of the brain and showed them iPhone reading
- correlated w/ love and compassion but a whole lot more of other functions (pain)
- oxytocin, boast trust and cooperation
- other studies show it induces envy and ingroup bias
- can’t diagnose ppl w/ mental disorder with just one brain scan
- but a lot of clinicians have done so
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Structure of the Brain
Hind Brain:
Controls basic physiological processes
• Sleeping
• Breathing
Cardiovascular activity
Motor coordination
Forebrain:
Regulates more complex actions of body.
Initiates and regulates cognitions & emotions.
- subcortical parts of the brain is older
Limbic system & prefrontal cortex key for emotional processes including emotion
regulation.
The Limbic System
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- most animals have this part of the brain
- amygdala: primary emotions: approach and avoidance
- emotions associated with rewards; sex & etc.
- the cortex is the newer part
Emotion in the Limbic System
Amygdala
Processing of motivationally significant stimuli
Ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens)
Reward, pleasure
- dopamine is released in the nucleus accumbens
- the anticipation of eating food and etc. give us pleasure
Periaqueductal gray
- involved in ther\ perception of the brain, not pain itself
• Pain
Jaak Panksepp’s Basic Emotions/Drives
seeking, fear, rage, lust, care, panic, play
Present in primates
Can be produced with subcortical stimulation
Motivate basic drives to approach/avoid
More complex emotions involve cognitive appraisals of these states
The Amygdala
Step 1: Evaluates sensory input for emotional significance
Receives information from visual and auditory cortices
- scanning the environment so you can make appraisal of it
Step 2: Determines if there is cause for emotion
Prescribes automatic behaviour
- e.g., danger --> fear --> auto B
Debate About Specialization of Amygdala
Older position
Fear & other negative emotions activate amygdala
Newer work
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